Just prior to engaging in actual sales activities, 41 prospective car salesmen underwent the Diamond Personality Inventory which consisted of 14 personality scales-Aggressiveness, Cooperativeness, Deliberateness, Perseverance, Creative attitude, Moralisticness, Emotional stability, Submissiveness, and Independence. Three criteria of sales success were used-the total number of cars sold during 18-month, 30-month, and 42-month periods. Results obtained from correlational analyses between the 14 personality trait predictors and the three criteria revealed that six personality valiables in the Diamond Personality Inventory-Aggressiveness, Self-confidence, Leadership, Empathy, Vigorousness, and Independence were correlated significantly with the three criteria of sales success.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the nature of regressive state in hypnosis by means of word-association-test (WAT). Stimulus words for WAT, pronounced without intonation, was presented to hypnotic, control, and distraction groups. At the first test, all groups were under awaken state, and at the second test, hypnotic group was under hypnosis, distraction group was under distraction. (1) Under hypnosis, more visual images (signifié-images) and clang associations (signifiant-images) were imagined. The hypnosis was supposed to be a partial, controlled “regression in the service of the ego”, and in this state the lexical meaning was not dissolved, but the unity among person, symbol, and referential object in Werner & Kaplan's sense was restored by the images. (2) The results suggest that hypnosis is different from distraction state, and is a state of specific concentration. (3) Since the signifié-image was contrary to the signifiant-image, these two were regarded as two aspects of regressive state in hypnosis. These two aspects are manifestation of emotional problems and restoration of body-mind unity.
This study aimed to examine the effects of evoking imagery as a strategy to control the skin temperature with the biofeedback method, Subjects were 32 female nursing school students. Pair-matched by their ability to evoke imagery, they were assigned to either the I group that was instructed to evoke warm imagery or the NI group that did not receive such instruction. The experiment was consisted of four sessions: pre-test session. two feedback training sessions, and post-test session. All subjects were instructed to raise their finger skin temperature, and the visual feedback was presented to both groups only during the feedback training sessions. Results obtained were as follows: (a) Both groups were able to raise their skin temperature during the feedback training sessions, (b) In the post-test, however, the number of subjects who were able to raise their skin temperature were greater in the I group than the NI group. These results suggested that the subjects who had acquired a strategy could control their skin temperature more effectively if the feedback was taken off.
This study examined the differences and characteristics of defense patterns on TAT responses among repressors and sensitizers. Based on the score on Byrne's repression-sensitization scale, 16 repressors and 16 sensitizers were selected from 90 male subjects, and the TAT was administered to them. Results showed that the mean time required to tell a story for each card was shorter for repressors than for sensitizers. Repressors' stories were shorter, monotonous and stereotyped, while sensitizers' were longer and more dramatic. Sensitizers sometimes were unable to construct stories, depending instead on direct verbalizations of anxiety. Content analysis demonstrated that repressors tended to express need as located in the external situation and press as coming from the environment, while sensitizers tended to express press as originative with persons and manifested need to avoid that press. These results suggest that the TAT clearly differentiates between repressors and sensitizers and that the study of defense behavior as it relates to the repression-sensitization dimension requires a multiphasic understanding.
The effects of resource on text processing were investigated by manipulating two factors: The amount of available resource and the amount of required resource. The former was manipulated by the amount of concurrent task (the number of signals to be detected during text processing). The latter was manipulated by abstractness of texts to be remembered. The results showed that text memory (which reflected the degree of text processing) increased when the amount of available resource was large or when that of required resource was small (Exp. I). The effect of text-abstractness on text memory, however, was not found in propositions rated to be important. That is, the inferiority of the abstract text appeared in the propositions rated to be neutral or unimportant (Exp. II). One possible interpretation of this result is that processing resorce is distributed to propositions within a text according to their importance.
The purpose of the present study was to find out the optimal conditions for remembering surface form of sentence. In Experiment I, the subjects were required to process a list of sentences under lexical, syntactic, or semantic orienting task condition. The results indicated that recognition of syntactic aspects of sentences under syntactic processing condition was superior to other conditions. In Experiment II, further analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of syntactic processing upon recognition of word order of sentence. The results indicated that the syntactic processing was facilitated when the following sentence of the same syntactic structure was processed. These results were discussed in terms of the relation between processing activity and sorts of information acquired.
Matches to the Munsell Lightness Scale were made in the two areas in a contrast-inducing pattern whose luminance difference was less than about 10%, and were compared with those of two uniform luminance field of corresponding luminances. The results showed (1) the simultaneous lightness contrast appeared in the contrast-inducing pattern, (2) the high luminance area in the contrast-inducing pattern appeared darker than the uniform luminance field of the same luminance. The lightness decrease in the high luminance area could be explained neither by Bekesy's neural units model nor by Stevens' power transformation model, since Bekesy's model predicts that high luminance area should appear lighter than the corresponding uniform luminance pattern, while Stevens' model expected the identical lightnesses between the two areas. In order to explain both the simultaneous lightness contrast and the lightness decrease, it was introduced a new model which included not only the antagonistic excitation and inhibition depending upon luminance-intensity, but also the non-antagonistic inhibition which is dependent upon the luminance-difference.
This study was designed to test the Piaget's notion that judging the other person's actions psychologically and morally was more difficult for children than making judgment on their owns. Subjects for the study consisted of 32 preschool children who were selected as being at either Gutkin's stages 1 or 2. The O condition asked subjects to make moral judgments on a pair of stories about other children's actions. For the S condition subjects were asked to pretend the central character in the story pairs, then to make judgments. Subjects at each stage were assigned to O and S conditions at two-week intervals. Results indicated that the S condition was more effective in eliciting subjective judgments than the O condition. This was discussed in terms of egocentrism, and of salience of intentionality in the story.
The effects of two temporal factors (ISI and duration) in the comparison processes of orientation were investigated. The subjects' task was to judge whether the orientations of two lines (SO and CO: varied from vertical to horizontal) successively presented were same or different. In Exp. I, the effects of ISIs (500ms-2000ms) were investigated, and in Exp. II, the effects of durations (50ms-500ms) of the SO-stimulus were examined. In both experiments, the “different” RTs as a function of the SO showed an inverted U-shape quadratic trend, while the “same” RTs resulted in a flat curve. These results supported the predictions from Andrews' assumptions on the orientation detectors and Krueger's noisy-operator theory. Experiment I showed that RTs became longer as the ISI was increased, and suggested that the lengthening of ISI reduced the output's strength of orientation detector tuned with the SO. But the duration of the SO-stimulus had no effect on RTs.
Two experiments were conducted in order to test the hypothesis presented by Sonoda, Sato, & Sakuma (1975): Selective letter perception in visual letter displays is influenced not only by the total number of letters presented and the spatial separation between the target letter and its adjacent noise letters, but also by the spatial arrangement of letters. The reaction time of pressing buttons to the target letter was measured as a function of spatial arrangement of letters, where the effects of the total number of letters and the spatial separation were controlled appropriately and the line indicator was strictly the only cue for target selection. It was suggested that the selective letter perception is influenced by the special spatial arrangement of letters which is produced by both the total number of letters and the heterogeneity of letter-to-letter separations.
Ninety six elementary and junior high school children, ranging from first grade of elementary school (seven years old) to second grade of junior high school (15 years old), were given the task of selecting one of two pictures to go with a sentence in an ambiguous situation, same as Hornby's study (1971). The ambiguity was created by the fact that neither picture actually represented the content of the sentence. However, by the subject's choice of pictures, it was possible to determine which part of the sentence he took to be “old information”. The results revealed that, lower grade (first to third of elementary school) children did not distinguish new and old information, but higher graders distinguished them, and the word order was the dominant cue for the distinction.