The effects of food deprivation (0-1, 2-3, and 22-23h) of pups and of lactational age of mother (1-7 days, 16-22 days and own mother) upon suckling behavior of pups were investigated with the mother anesthetized. 1. The effect of food deprivation was not evident prior to 11 days of age but deprived pups showed higher level of suckling than non-deprived pups at 16 and 21 days of age (Experiment 1). 2. The effect of lactational age of mother was not found at 6-17 days of age but pups at 1-2 and 21-22 days of age showed lower level of suckling to the anesthetized mother which differed in lactational age from their own mother (Experiment 2).
This experiment examined the efficacy of extralist retrieval cues when encoding tasks were varied. Subjects were induced to produce three types of words: typical modifiers of the target words in the elaborative processing task, atypical ones in the distinctive processing task, and words of which the first letters were identical with the last letters of the targets in the control processing task. After the encoding phase, each subject was given either a free recall or an extralist cued recall test. In the elaborative condition, extralist cued recall was superior to free recall, whereas in the distinctive and control conditions, the difference between the two types of retrieval was not significant. The results were interpreted in support of encoding specificity.
The stability of House Drawing in H-T-P test was examined by administering the test to 38 high school male students (Group A), 40 high school male students (Group B) and 32 juvenile delinquents (Group C). Group A performed the test two times, two weeks apart. The two sets of drawings were then statistically analysed by the experimenter. And the matching of 20 drawings of the first time with 20 drawings of the second was attempted by four judges. In result, test-retest correlations were significant in the style of drawings and the impression as a whole but not so significant in details. Group B and Group C also performed the test two times but the instruction was changed in the second time. Result showed that the stability of drawings was maintained in Group C but not in Group B. Line pressure, One wall and Window Curtains were stable in drawings of all groups.
This study examined the AB therapist type hypothesis: An A thrapist type is more effective with schizophrenics, a B therapist type is more effective with neurotics. In this study, contrasting with the previous AB type studies which used frequently the AB type scale, the scale was only supplementarily used. In Examination I, 66 subjects were chosen from experienced male therapists, and the types of the subjects were determined by their self ratings. The subjects were asked whether their personality traits are similar to schizophrenics or neurotics. The existence of AB type was supported by their answer, and it was found that the similarity in their personality to each patient type was important factor of AB type. There was no relation between the AB type scale and AB type which was determined by the self rating. Examination II was conducted to examine the reliability of the self ratings. AB type based on the self rating and AB type based on ratings by others were compaired with subjects of 13 male therapists. Results were that both ratings were identical in all four experienced therapists whereas only two out of seven less experienced therapists. The result was considered to indicate that the self ratings were reliable.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affective-cognitive consistency and attiude-behavior closeness. Attitudes toward driving at high speed were assessed by semantic differential scales. “Concepts” or stimulus situations were ill-mannered behavior, related to high speed driving, while the subjects were violators and non-violators of traffic rules. The semantic differential scales were factor analyzed, yielding two factors of affective and cognitive components. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the degree of affective-cognitive consistency which was based on the difference between the deviations of scores on the two scales from their neutral point. The results were as follows. (1) Subjects with the lowest affective-cognitive consistency were likely to act in accord with affective component, while (2) Subjects in the other three groups were likely to act in accord with both components of attitude. These results suggest that affective-cognitive discrepancy is not necessarily associated with predictive power of attitude, if the subject has definite attitude toward the attitude object.
Usually, people would not choose contradictory alternative in a set of personality test. For example, if one is active, then he can't be passive. However, those apparent contradiction may co-exist in him, which may be called “two-sidedness” in personality traits (or structure). In order to reveal the “two-sidedness”, a personality test (two-sided personality scale, TSPS) based on 30 pairs of antonym scales, was constructed. Subjects, 243 students, were asked to rate both sides of antonym independently. For example, one may check both fairly active and fairly passive at the same time. The difference between two ratings on a paired antonym was summed through 30 scales, and the resulting figure was regarded as a measure of his “two-sidedness”. The analysis of two-sidedness score showed reasonable discriminability among the subjects, and the two-sided subjects seemed to be more stable emotionally.
The purpose of this study is to elucidate how cognitively simple (CS) and complex (CC) subjects would integrate trait informations in impression of personality. Eight persons were constructed with uni- through tri-dimensional trait information, yielding 24 hypothetical stimulus persons (Table 2). For each condition, the cognitive space (stimulus configuration) of personality impressions was analysed by multidimensional scaling of individual differences (ALSCAL). Structures of cognitive space was examined, with increase in dimensionality of information. Only the data of eight CS (cognitively simple) and eight CC (cognitively complex) subjects were analysed, who were selected from 38 high school girls, based on the scores of Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep. Test). Throughout three conditions, CS subjects discriminate the stimulus persons globally and unidimensionally, while CC subjects discriminate them multidimensionally producing the highly-organized cognitive space, accordingly.
The present experiment was designed to examine the eftects of the numbers of letter and word upon CNV components, by using a modified Sternberg's paradigm. The results indicated that CNV amplitude decreased and CNV rising time increased as a function of the numbers of letter and word. CNV resolution time increased with the number of word, while no increase in resolution time was observed with the number of letter. These findings were discussed in relation to recent information processing models.
The present study was designed to examine the effect of personalistic attribution and the intimacy level of disclosure on interpersonal attraction and reciprocity of self-disclosure. Two subjects were exposed to a disclosure of low (medium, high) intimacy level by a partner (confederate). In order to manipulate personalistic attribution, she (confederate) was asked in advance to choose whether to talk (disclose herself) to one or both of the subjects. Results confirmed a curvilinear relationship between the intimacy level of disclosure and interpersonal attraction. Reciprocity was higher when self-disclosure was at the medium level. However, no particular effect of personalistic attribution was confirmed.
A new method of measuring blood pressure proposed previously by us (1980) was examined to evaluate its usefulness and applicability for psychological research. In this method, beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic pressures and pressure waveforms of the human finger are measured noninvasively by the use of a volume-servocontrol system, in which vascular volume changes, associated with intraarterial pressure and photo-plethysmographically detected, are compensated by an applied counterpressure (cuff pressure) to maintain a proper value corresponding to the unloaded vascular volume. At this state, the servocontrolled cuff pressure follows the intraarterial pressure instantaneously. Comparative data with direct measurement from the brachial artery were analyzed in a normotensive and a hypertensive subjects, and fairly valid regression coefficients as well as highly significant correlation coefficients were obtained between these two methods in each subject under various conditions. The present system can be used without any discomfort for the measurement of instantaneous arterial pressure for more than one hour, since the blood circulation in the finger is maintained. This system, therefore, was found to be an useful and practical means to study human subjects in various fields of psychology.