The purpose of this study is to standardize the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), developed by Spielberger et al. (1973) into a Japanese version. The Japanese version of STAIC composed by the authors were tested in 2539 primary school children. On the basis of the data, mean scores, standard deviations and score distributions of A-Trait and A-State in the Japanese version of STAIC are reported. The high values of the test-retest reliability, construct validity, factorial validity and concurrent validity were proved by examination.
The purpose of this study was to examine cerebral palsied children's characteristics in rotating figure reconstruction. Shochi's Block Design Test (1971) was used as the method for 30 cerebral palsied children (age 5-13) and 30 normal children (age 5-10). The cerebral palsied children had some difficulties in rotating figure reconstruction in comparison with that of normal children. But there was no difference in the directions of rotation between the two groups of children. It was found that the developmental trends of the performance of both groups were evident by increasing ages, but the trends of the cerebral palsied children were more delayed than the normal children. This was because the cerebral palsied children were staying at the motor level by their restricted experience and their delayed maturation. And it was also due to their difficulties in reconstruct the figures in relation to image, to reflective scheme and to their own motor scheme under the rotating condition.
The present study is an attempt to investigate implicit associative relations in the Japanese, which appear to exist between nuclear-related verbal concepts and colors. Selections of verbal stimuli and subjects were dictated by the following considerations. “Nuclear power plants” and “Peaceful use of nuclear power” were chosen as the two verbal stimuli to elicit color-names. The former was assumed to have more negative connotations. Two groups of subjects participated in the testings-those who live closely to nuclear power plants, and those who work in nuclear-related domains as professionals. It was speculated that the professionals should hold more favorable attitudes toward nuclear-related events than do the offsite residents. Patterns of color-name association were examined both between the two subject groups and between the two verbal stimuli. In the subject comparison, a high rank-order correlation was obtained for “Peaceful use” while, for “Nuclear power plants”, the correlation was significant but clearly lower. In the concept comparison, a significantly greater difference was found in the offsite residents than in the professionals. It was also found that colors such as ORANGE, GREEN, BLUE, LIGHT BLUE and PINK connote acceptance while colors such as RED, GREY, and YELLOW, imply rejection. It was possible to conclude that the offsite residents showed a greater degree of negative attitudes toward the nuclear-related concepts than did the professionals by way of the color symbolism.
The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental relationships between the rehearsal strategy (primary rehearsal and secondary rehearsal) and the recall performance in Initial Free Recall (IFR) and Final Free Recall (FFR), and also between the rehearsal strategy and the organization of memory in FFR. Subjects were third-(aged 9), fifth-(aged 11), eighth-(aged 14) graders, and college students. The main results were as follows: (a) The secondary rehearsal group showed more recall than the primary rehearsal group for the fifth, the eighth graders, and the college students. For the third graders no difference between the two rehearsal groups was found: (b) Recall in IFR and FFR and organization in FFR increased significantly as a function of age: (c) The primary rehearsal group showed higher categorical clustering (ARC) scores than the secondary rehearsal group in all ages, while the latter group showed higher intra-list associative scores than the former. The results were discussed from the viewpoints of the development of rehearsal strategy and the levels-of-processing theory.
Two experiments were carried out to examine the relationship between sensory and/or semantic variability of stimulus words and the effect of massed versus distributed repetition on free recall. In the first experiment stimulus words were presented orally four times, each presentation by a different experimenter's voice. The subject's attention to words was measured in terms of reaction time to subsidiary signal tones. The variability of voices facilitated the attention to words in the massed condition but did not enhance recall performance. In the second experiment stimulus words presented visually were accompanied by constant or varied encoding sentences presented auditorily to induce variable semantic contexts. The variability of encoding sentences increased recall performance in the massed condition, but the influence of distributed repetition was not completely eliminated. These results suggest that the spacing effect in free recall is related to variability in semantic encoding but not to sensory or attentional components.
The present study was designed to investigate interrelationships among the following three strategies for sentence comprehension: Word order strategy, postposition strategy and semantic strategy. A 2×2×2 factorial design was employed. The three within-subject variables were: Word order of the sentence (SOV or OSV), the presence or absence of postpositions, and the type of verb (human-object or non-human-object). The subject's task was to make rapid judgements about whether the stimulus sentence was acceptable or unacceptable. Main results were as follows: (a) Reaction time was longer for sentences with postpositions than for sentences without postpositions. (b) Reaction time was longer for OSV than for SOV except in the case of human-object sentences without postpositions. These findings were interpreted as evidence that the three processing strategies were used in sentence comprehension, and a tentative model of sentence comprehension composed of the three strategies was proposed.
This research examined relationships between modeling effects and observer's comprehension levels for task structure before observation. In Experiment I, 5-year-olds were divided into three groups with different comprehension levels (Level I being the lowest) derived from the pretest score, and trained under one of four conditions (modeling with instruction, modeling with correct or incorrect cue, modeling only, control). After training, subjects received imitation and generalization test. The results indicated that the Level III showed the best performance in both tests, regardless of the training conditions, however, the Level I was superior to the Level II in both tests. A detailed examination of strategies used in the pretest revealed that the Level I showed less frequent change of strategy than that of the Level II. In Experiment II, subjects who showed no change of strategy in the pretest (consistent group) did better performance than subjects who showed strategy change (inconsistent group) after observation. These results were discussed in terms of the strategies employed in the pretest and the observer's dependence on the model.
This experiment was conducted to examine whether release from proactive inhibition (PI) occurred during encoding or retrieval process. Forty college students were required to remember triads employing the Brown-Peterson technique. Half of them were instructed to recall only currently presented items (DR condition) and the others to recall both currently and earlier presented items (NDR condition). Results showed that PI and release from PI occurred in DR condition but not in NDR condition. These results suggested that buildup and release from PI might be interpreted in terms of difficulties in discriminating current from earlier presented items during retrieval process.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posttrial episodes (PTEs) on conditioning in rats using a licking conditioned suppression technique. Experiment I revealed that the surprising PTE, as compared with the expected PTE, facilitated conditioning. The interval between the target trial and PTEs was 6s. Experiment II revealed that the effect of surprising PTE was not affected by the interval between the target trial and surprising PTE (4-40s). These results were not consistent with the results of Wagner, Rudy, & Whitlow (1973) using the eyelid conditioning in rabbits and with the Wagner's model concerning the information processing in animals (1976, 1978).