This study investigated the interactive activation process of homograph (H: e.g. “jam”) and context word (C: e.g, “strawberry”). Subjects studied a list of H-C or C-H pairs, where presentation intervals between H and C were varied (0, 0.6, or 1.2s). Then they were tested for the recognition memory of H in a changed context (e.g. “jam-traffic”) in Exp. 1, or in the same context (e.g. “jam-raspberry”) in Exp. 2. The recognition memory of H as a function of presentation interval was obtained. An interesting phenomenon was that the recognition memory of H in H-C pairs at the 1.2s interval was poorer than that of the 0.6s interval, when tested in a changed context, but better in the same context. This suggests that both meanings of H were activated at the 0.6s interval, but one of them related to C was selected at the 1.2s interval. Results were discussed in terms of the spreading activation model of semantic memory.
In the present study recipient reaction to help were investigated. In Experiment I, subjects either received help from a partner or not, and they either had the opportunity of reciprocating help to the partner or not. In Experiment II, after all subjects received help from a partner, they had (a) an opportunity of reciprocating help to the partner (reciprocation condition), (b) an opportunity of helping a third-person (helping-third-person condition), or (c) no opportunity of reciprocating help (nonreciprocation condition). The main dependent variable in both Experiment I and Experiment II was the recipient's estimation (impression, attraction) of the partner. The subjects in the receiving-helping-and-nonreciprocation condition estimated the partner more negatively than the subjects in the receiving-help-and-reciprocation condition (Experiment I). The subjects in the helping-third-person condition estimated the partner in a similar way as the subjects in the nonreciprocation condition, i.e. they estimated the partner more negatively than the subjects in the reciprocation condition (Experiment II). The results were discussed from the viewpoint of equity theory.
Oldham's finding (1976) that significant relationships existed between job characteristics and internal motivation for employees who experienced high satisfaction with their supervisors and co-workers led to the hypothesis of the present study that the significant relationships between the two variables would be found only when interpersonally satisfied employees performed interdependent jobs which need cooperation. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, data collected from 1391 nurses employed in eight hospitals showed that the nurses with higher interdependent jobs were motivated when they were dissatisfied with their co-workers. These results would seem to indicate that interpersonal satisfaction and satisfaction with intrinsically motivated jobs complement each other, so that when employees are interpersonally dissatisfied they seek job satisfaction, and vice versa.
The purpose of the present study was to examin the reactions (favorable or unfavorable) of the subjects toward another who expressed an opinion favoring either equal or equitable reward allocation for work performed in a hypothetical situation. There were 88 subjects in Exp. 1 and 60 in Exp. 2. In both experiments, the subjects were asked their reactions toward another who expressed an opinion on reward allocation. The results suggest that when a person expressed an opinion about a reward which would accrue to himself, the reactions of the subjects toward him depended upon the degree to which he agreed to sacrifice his own gain. When the opinion was unrelated to his own reward, the person who supported equal allocation was liked but who supported equitable allocation was disliked. Whether the opinion about allocation was similar to that of the subjects had no effect on their reactions toward that person expressing the opinion.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of stimulus probability confounded with memory set size on encoding stage in memory scanning tasks. Experiment I investigated the effects of stimulus probability confounded with memory set size on the identification of tachistoscopi-cally presented probes in memory scanning tasks. The results indicated that the correct identification of probes decreased as a function of memory set size in positive set. It was interpreted that stimulus probability confounded with memory set size had effects on the identification of probes. Experiment II investigated the effects of memory set size with equal stimulus probability on the identification of probes. The results indicated that memory set size had no effect on the identification of probes in both positive and negative sets. It was concluded that stimulus probability confounded with memory set size affected encoding stage in memory scanning tasks.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the dimensional structure of the semantic space with which postures are judged; that is, to explore the nature, number and independence of the dimensions involved. Six hundred eighty six subjects consisting of male and female groups received a booklet with 40 words of posture. One word of posture and 16 rating scales were typed on each page. Subjects inferred an encoder's attitude towards oneself (i.e., the decoding subject) from words of posture in imaginary dyadic communication situations. A principal factor analysis yielded evidence for three independent dimensions resembling those proposed by Schlosberg (1954), Osgood (1966), Williams and Sundene (1965). Each of these three factors was nominated as “Self-fulfillment”, “Interpersonal positiveness” and “Interpersonal consciousness”. Females were more responsive than males to the postures.
A new-type maze using computer graphics was devised and applied to simulate human problem solving in a “fire” emergency situation. The maze was a 10-unit multiple U-maze (Warden, 1924). On the screen in front of the subject was displayed a three-dimensional, subjects-eye view of a hall, with floor, ceiling and walls. The subject could change the scene to the next or could “walk” through a passage, or turn to either right or left, by pressing appropriate keys. Experimental group was instructed to escape from the exit as quickly as possible, assuming the situation as a fire emergency. Control group was run under normal condition. The results, in terms of a few additional measures of maze learning, showed that the experimental subjects made more errors, took more time to get out of the maze, made more inappropriate moves and took less time to change one scene to the next, than the control subjects. Advantages and the potentialities of this maze for simulating human behavior in emergency were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between verbally reported emotional meanings of music and physiological responses to them. Subjects were 16 female, junior college students in each of GSR and respiration experiments. They listened to 16 musical excerpts and rated each on 11 scales, which consisted of eight adjectives representing for four factors identified by factor analysis and each for familiarity, preference and tempo, while their GSRs or respiration rates were recorded. The respiration rates and their percentages of increase significantly correlated positively with ratings of “cheerful”, “gay” and “powerful”, and negatively with “calm”, “melancholy” and “dismal”. The numbers of GSRs (frequencies of marked GSRs) and the percentages of decrease in skin resistance significantly correlated negatively with “calm”, and positively with “powerful”. The physiological variables employed in this study correlated with the verbal reports of meanings of music.
Thirty-eight mentally retarded children and 44 normal children learned a paired-associate picture list under one of four conditions. Subjects in E1 group were exposed to the model who learned the same list by means of formulating mediational sentences directly prior to learning by themselves. Subjects in E2 group were exposed to the model who learned the different list by means of formulating mediational sentences. Subjects in E3 group were exposed to the model who learned the same list without mediational sentences. Control subjects learned the paired-associate list without observing the model. The results indicated that retarded and normal subjects in E1 group performed significantly higher than subjects in E2, E3, and control groups. The modeling of verbal elaboration was proved.
Kimura's “access model” (1966) of functional difference between the two cerebral hemispheres was examined in a letter classification task. Subjects were required to judge whether or not two Japanese Kana letters in different forms, simultaneously or successively presented, had the same phonemes. Letter stimuli were tachistoscopically projected unilaterally in either right visual field (UR) or left visual field (UL), or bilaterally one in each visual field (B). In successive condition, three interstimulus-interval (ISI) conditions were provided, and bilateral pairs were divided into BL and BR conditions according to the visual field of the first letter. RTs for UR were shorter than UL both in simultaneous and successive conditions. Bilateral pairs in simultaneous condition showed shorter RTs than UL. In successive condition, both BL and BR showed longer RTs than UR in all ISI conditions. The fact that RTs for BL did not approach to UR suggested the necessity of some additional assumptions to Kimura's access model. Reservation of the processing of first stimuli was discussed as one of the possible interpretations for the present results.