In order to investigate how geometrical transformations contribute to various cognitive judgements of patterns, 5-dots-in-3×3-matrix patterns were rated by male and female adults for goodness, simplicity, similarity, and other aspects. (1) Since the wide individual differences were observed in the judgements of pattern goodness, it was concluded that the ratings for goodness were not very reliable. (2) The ratings for pattern simplicity were very reliable, and they could be explained by two kinds of transformations. One was the rotation·mirror-image transformation related to symmetry, and the other was the translation related to linearity. (3) The ratings for similarity between patterns were also reliable, and they could be explained by the inter-pattern transformation and the simplicity of each pattern. (4) In the forced-choice-session, subjects were asked to choose from an equivalence set the prototype and a pattern most similar to it; their choices were affected by the vertical mirror-image transformation more than the others.
The purpose of this study is to answer two problems. (1) Which attribute is the most important in the similarity judgments of classical music? (2) Are there differences in the salience of particular dimensions between the music students and the nonmusic students? Forty female subjects were asked to rate nine musical stimuli on semantic differential scales. They were asked again to rate similarity among all possible pairs of the same nine stimuli. Individual difference multidimensional scaling (ALSCAL) yielded two common stimulus dimensions, which were interpreted as affective dimension and historical dimension. There were significant differences between the music students and the nonmusic students in the weight of these dimensions. Perceptual judgments of nonmusic students are dominated only by affective dimension, while those of music students judgments are dominated by both affective and historical dimensions.
Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of US experience upon CR in the tasteaversion learning situation. In Experiment I, like many other learning situations (e.g., CER situation), it was tested whether the US experience had any effect on CR in the taste-aversion learning. After conditioning (CS1: saccharin solution (0.1%), US: LiCl solution (0.15mol)), rats received US alone six times. At this time, the effects of contextual cues were also tested. Then, the extinction procedure was administered to test the retroactive effect of US experience and the aversion to the CS1 was tested. Further, rats were conditioned to the CS2 (NaCl solution (9g/l)) to study the proactive effect of the US experience. In Experiment II, the strength of US presented alone after conditioning was systematically varied across groups (0.05, 0.075, 0.15, 0.3, and 0.45mol). The rest of the procedures were the same as in Experiment I. From Experiments I and II, it was found that the stronger the US strength was, the more reduced was the CR to the CS1, and the more retarded was the formation of CR to the CS2. The results suggest that the CS-US association exists in the taste-aversion learning, and the appearance of the CR was dependent on the state of the US memory.
The elimination-by-aspects (EBA) model assumes that, in a choice situation, alternatives can be clearly dichotomized depending upon whether they include a particular aspect (a desirable feature) or not. In actual life, however, aspects taken account for the choice are often ambiguous; in many instances, alternatives cannot be dichotomized so clearly. In the present study, this ambiguity was represented using membership grade of fuzzy sets theory, and EBA model was generalized to be applicable to fuzzy aspects. This model was termed fuzzy-EBA (FEBA) model, and it was tested by applying it to political choice. For each individual, choice probability was computed by the model, where image ratings of political parties were regarded as grades of membership. The expected number of subjects who select a particular party was estimated from individual choice probabilities, and reasonable agreement with the observed number of subjects was obtained.
The present study examined the applicability of the Fishbein model to the behavior of adolescents. Participants in the study were 563 male and female high school students ranging in age from 13 to 18. Their attitudes toward the behavior (AB), the normative beliefs of parents and teachers (Adb), the normative belief of friends (Frb), and the intention (I) were measured in six behavioral contexts. The results strongly supported the model; that is, the attitudinal and normative variables were effective in predicting each behavioral intention, with a significant increment of R2 in both analyses regardless as to whether AB puls Adb or Frb were calculated in that order or in reverse order. The standardized regression coefficients of the model's variables explained the traits of each behavior well. The model was also effective in demonstrating the proposition about the behavior of adolescents. Concerning the reference group, relevant referents changed along the individual developmental stages. It was found that first grade junior students were more influenced by parents and teachers (Adb), but upper grade students were more influenced by friends (Frb).
A compensatory tracking experiment was performed to investigate, on the basis of control theory, the dynamic characteristics of control movement in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (limb-girdle type) and with myotonic dystrophy. Error scores and operator's transfer functions were estimated from the tracking data. The latter were approximated by a model which was composed of a gain constant, a delayed time constant and a dead time. The results showed that (1) error scores for the muscular dystrophy patients and for the myotonic dystrophy patients were, in this order, greater than those for the normal subjects; (2) the dynamic characteristics described by the transfer functions of the three groups were different from each other in terms of gain, phase lag and linearity of their operation. These results were discussed in terms of the stage of disability of motor function and the deterioration of intelligence with disease.
Territoriality in seat-taking of 15 faculty members of a university was investigated by means of observing a faculty meeting held once a month during two academic years except summer vacations and by interviewing each of the faculty members after the observation period. At the meeting room, no seat was reserved, i.e., any seat was available for any member. Seat-taking behavior observed at 18 meetings and the data obtained by the interview were analyzed. The result verified the working hypotheses on territoriality, such as the member's attachment to particular seats, dominant seat-occupancy by higher status members, stabilization of seat-taking behavior within the group, and reluctance to intrude into others' seats.
The purpose of this research was to examine the narcissistic tendency of middle-aged women compared with other age groups. The narcissistic tendencies of adolescent and pregnant women had already been found (Hosoi, 1981a, 1981b). A questionnaire was administered to 386 subjects aged 18-49 (336 females and 50 males). Three factors were found by factor analysis. The narcissistic tendencies toned by “self-love” and “exhibition” were clearly found for two groups of midde-aged women (aged 35-39 and 45-49) as in adolescents. The narcissistic tendencies toned by “sameness”, found for male adolescents and middle-aged women, were alike.
Thirty second graders and 30 sixth graders studied familiar words embedded in interchangeable or noninterchangeable sentences followed by a recognition test. For each interchangeable sentence, both the word to-be-remembered and its associate fit sensibly. For each noninterchangeable sentence, the word to-be-remembered fit sensibly but its associate did not. For sixth graders false recognitions to the associates were more frequent in interchangeable sentences than in noninterchangeable sentences, whereas for second graders the difference between the two sentences was not observed. The results were interpreted as showing that there was a developmental change of semantic constraint in encoding the words embedded in sentences.
The purpose of this experiment is to examine the age differences in encoding and decoding ability and the encoding-decoding relationship. Ten fourth-grade children and 10 undergraduates served as both encoders and decoders of facial expressions depicting six different emotions. Main findings were as follows: (a) children's encoding scores (rated by both children and adults) were not correlated with decoding scores for children's or adults' facial expressions; (b) as well, adults' encoding scores were not correlated with their decoding scores; (c) adults encode and decode more accurately than children; (d) children's decoding scores were higher than their encoding scores, but there was no difference in adults' encoding scores and decoding scores. Developmental changes in the encoding-decoding relationship were discussed.