The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of personalistic self-disclosure on interpersonal attraction. Thirty-two male subjects participated in the experiment. After showing intimate or superficial disclosure, the confederate attributed the cause of his disclosure either to the subjects (personalistic condition) or to the confederate himself (non-personalistic condition). Subjects were then informed of these attributions. Results obtained clearly supported the hypotheses. Subjects who received intimate and personalistic disclosures liked the confederate significantly more than those who received intimate and non-personalistic disclosures. On the other hand, subjects who received superficial and personalistic disclosures disliked the confederate significantly more than those who received superficial and non-personalistic disclosures.
Fifteen children were tested at the ages of 6, 11, and 18 to observe developmental trends in childhood and adolescent Rorschach responses. Marked trend differences were found between the age span of 6 to 11 and 11 to 18. While a consistent pattern of response changes emerged for the pre-adolescent to mid-adolescent age span of 11 to 18, no such pattern of general direction of change was seen in the childhood age span of 6 to 11. When comparing scores at ages 11 to 18, individual scores were shown to have increased in major seven of 29 variables (M, FM, M%, CF, sh%, F+%, ΣF+%) and to have declined in four (F, F%, A%, D%); showing definite directions and constant rate of change; the predictability of individual response patterns extended even to close approximations of their variable scores. A comparison of scores at ages 6 to 11 showed considerable fluctuations with little consistency or predictability. These results suggest that the adolescent Rorschach responses reflect maturational changes of an already differentiated personality whereas childhood responses reflect fluctuations of an on-going process of personality development, i.e., childhood is the formative period of the individual's personality.
Two experiments were designed to elucidate effects of elaboration on recall and recognition. The experiments were carried out in incidental memory paradigms, where subjects were instructed first to produce free associates to target words, then they were forced to face an unexpected memory test. Here, the degree of elaboration was identified with the number of generated words at the free association task. Recall performance was significantly higher for targets which generated the more associates (Exp. I). In recognition, no clear effects of elaboration were found for long presented targets (Exp. I, II), however increased elaboration was associated with higher retention when targets were presented for short periods (Exp. II). These results were interpreted in terms of a three process model of retrieval.
Two sets each of High, Medium, and Low Creative Groups (HCG, MCG and LCG), N=12 each, were selected on the basis of JARAT (RAT Revised In Japanese) scores from 364 male college students. One set was asked to entitle each of six pairs of superimposed slide photographs in order to assess mental fusion of visual images under Response Free Situation (RFS), and the other set under Response Restricted Situation (RRS). Under RFS, HCG showed significantly stronger propensity for fusing images that had opposite impression than the other groups. MCG and LCG responded to a few images more promptly, while HCG elaborated their responses more than the rest under both response conditions, and especially under RRS in which each group was encouraged to produce excellent ones. Thus, it was suggested that HCG might process opposites more flexibly and reversibly in both remote associative thinking and in homospatial imagery synthesizing.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of cognitive manipulation processes in serial ordering, such as comparisons of elements or rearrangements of lines, and their relations to cognitive abilities. The task was to order 10 sticks with respect to their length. The subjects were three, four, and five year olders. Two hypotheses were assumed that (1) the types of comparison were dependent on abstraction of dimensions, such as length, thickness, or color, from various attributes of objects (2) that the types of rearrangement are dependent on the presence of complete seriation-figure image. The significant correspondences were observed between the types of comparison and the scores of abstraction-comparison of dimension test, and between the types of rearrangement and the scores of figure comprehension test, and between the types of rearrangement and the scores of figure comprehension test. In addition, a scalogram analysis revealed that unidimensionality of scales in descending order, is (a) the abstraction-comparison of dimension test, (b) the presence of complete serration image, (c) appropriate comparisons, (d) adequate rearrangements, and (e) complete seriation.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate how dimensional (neatness, intelligence, warmth, self-confidence, and cheerfulness) weights in person perception varied according to perceiver's sex, perceiver's authoritarianism, and stimulus person's sex. Subjects were 36 males and 36 females. Thirty of their acquaintances (15 males and 15 females) served as stimulus persons. Subjects were asked to rate each stimulus person's personality on each dimension and overall similarity of personality for each pair of stimulus persons. Subjects were asked to rate male and female stimulus persons separately. Dimensional weights were estimated by calculating the correlation coefficient between perceived dissimilarity for each pair of stimulus persons on each perceptual dimension and overall dissimilarity for each pair of stimulus persons transformed from the directly rated overall similarity. The results suggested that the dimensional weights for cheerfulness and self-confidence were generally larger and that high authoritarians' dimensional weights concentrated upon particular dimensions. Results were discussed with reference to Rosenberg's (1977) multidimensional evaluative model.
To examine the effect of script type and/or script frequency on the semantic access to words, 34 undergraduates were required the category decision for each word presented tachistoscopically. Three classes of words were used as stimuli; Kana words with low Kana script frequency (Kana-Low), Kana words with high Kana script frequency (Kana-High), and Kanji words with high Kanji script frequency (Kanji). Mean decision latency for Kana-High was shorter than that for Kana-Low, while there was no difference of latency between Kana-High and Kanji. These results show that the speed of semantic access depends on script frequency rather than script type.
A total of 48 rats were run in a black-white discrimination (original) learning task to the learning criterion of 18/20 correct responses. Correct responses were rewarded by food and a non-correction method was used. One group was intraperitoneally injected with 15mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and the other with physiological saline (SAL), 30min prior to the beginning of the daily trials. For half of the rats (NOT) of each group, reversal learning began on the next day after reaching the criterion, and for the other half (OT), 100 additional trials (overtraining) were given before the reversal. The results showed that CDP as well as overtraining significantly retarded the reversal learning. CDP had no effect on the original learning. Further analysis of the data revealed that perseverative errors early in the reversal increased significantly under the conditions of CDP and overtraining, but trials to criterion after the first occurrence of the correct response were not affected by both CDP and overtraining. These results were discussed in terms of CDP's disinhibitory action and overtraining reversal effect in such relatively easy discrimination task as in the present experiment.
The purpose of this study was to classify Umemoto (1969)'s 210 stimulus words, based on his own norm of word association data. The principal factor analysis and geomax rotation was applied to the concordance matrix which was calculated by count-out method. The result indicated that the 210 words were classified into 11 groups; education (I), emotional evaluation (II), beauty (III), social relations (IV), motion (V), furniture (VI), family (VII), color (VIII), unusuality (IX), ego (X), and plant (XI). Umemoto's stimuli do not include sufficient number of words concerning social relations, furniture, family, and plant.
This study attempted to construct the self-consciousness scale for Japanese based on the scale made by Fenigstein et al. (1975). Twenty six items which may assess individual difference in self-consciousness were made. The factor analysis of the items indicated that there were two main factors. These two factors were similar to the private and the public self-consciousness factors which were found by Fenigstein et al. The scores of the public self-consciousness indicated in this study were found to have positive correlation with both social anxiety (the tendency of avoidance from self-presentation) scale and exhibitionism (the tendency of approach to self-presentation) scale. Implications of self-consciousness scale for research on social behavior was discussed.