The effect of the length of delay interval on short-term retention was investigated in seven pigeons using delayed matching-to-sample task with three color stimuli; red, green and blue. The delay duration was changed as a function of performance accuracy by a titration method. The main results were as follows: (a) The percentage of incorrect responses did not increase as a function of delay intervals up to 4s. (b) About 70% of all incorrect responses occured on trials in which comparison stimuli were bule and green (The percentage of correct responses on these trials was about 60%). The main cause of incorrect responses in delayed matching-to-sample, and the nature of short-term information processing in pigeons were discussed.
This study sought to clarify the therapeutic process through the evaluation of clients' meaningful action and to investigate possible relationships between the attributes of therapists and the therapeutic process. Two hundred and one therapists participated in the study by answering an inventory which evaluated the meaningful actions of clients. This inventory consisted of 47 items of therapeutic situations which were judged using a six-point scale. Factor-analysis resulted in seven factors: 1) resistance and inner conflict, 2) stable and reliable relationship, 3) autonomy, 4) disclosure, 5) activeness, 6) relaxation, 7) tension. The possible relationships were investigated between the therapists' attributes (such as his vocational standpoint, age, sex, clinical experience, therapeutic approach and the client's type of disorder and age) and each of these factors. Using the results of the inventory, 22 therapists were requested to arrange these seven factors in an order which reflects the process of their psychotherapy. The usual order was (7)-(1)-(2)-(4)-(6)-(5)-(3). The importance which the therapists gave to each specific stage of the therapeutic process with a client was found to be related to the therapist's attributes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the multiplicative effect of P (performance) and M (maintenance) leadership dimensions under fear and non-fear conditions. As an index of multiplicative effect served “fixation”, i.e., the moving back and forth within the same area of a maze. Furthermore, the study investigated processes that occur as pressure P changes to planning P as a consequence of M leadership. Subjects were asked to move to an exit of a maze by tapping four switches. A TV-monitor provided the inside view of the maze which changed in accordance with the lay-out of the maze as the subjects moved in it. Two emotional states (fear, non-fear) were factorially combined with leadership types (P, PM, M) for eight trials, providing a 2×3×8 design with the trials as a repeated measure. “Fixation” was found to be the lowest in “fear and PM” condition. The degree of planning P was higher in PM than in P or M conditions. Perception of unreasonable pressure from the leader was less marked in PM than in P conditions. These findings seemed to indicate that M leadership helped to change pressure P into planning P.
To investigate typicality effect on category clustering, three lists were constructed with varying typicality but with equivalent familiarity. Each list was composed of 36 items, six examplars from each of six categories, which were kagu (furniture), yasai (vegetable), mushi (insect), tori (bird), doubutsu (animal), and dougu (tool). In Exp. I, 60 undergraduates learned the lists, and their free-recall data indicated that high typicality list was more clustered and better recalled. Experiment II, in which category named were presented either before or after list learning to 120 undergraduates, showed the same typicality effect as was found in Exp. I. Results suggest that the typicality effect obtained in Exp. I was not due to category name retrieval in list learning or in recall but due to chunking while learning the list.
The effects of task-contingent rewards and positive performance feedback on subsequent intrinsic motivation for a decipherment task called a cipher game were examined. It was hypothesized that 1) task-contingent rewards would undermine intrinsic motivation, that 2) positive performance feedback would enhance it, and that 3) these two effects would not interact. Sixtyfour female undergraduate subjects were randomly assigned to conditions in a factorial design including two conditions of reward (paid vs. not paid) and two conditions of performance feedback (positive vs. neutral). Task-contingent rewards were found to reduce intrinsic motivation relative to control conditions of no reward. Positive performance feedback enhanced intrinsic motivation in the task-contingent reward condition, but did not enhance it in the no reward condition, and thus the positive feedback effect was not independent of reward effects. These results suggest that extrinsic rewards accompanied with positive performance feedback may not decrease intrinsic motivation, because positive performance feedback may undermine the detrimental effects of extrinsic rewards.
Subjects, who were randomly asigned to the three experimental conditions, watched the actor's achievement behavior (success or failure) on videotape and then made causal attributions for his behavior. I Subjects were instructed to make both observation and causal attributions from actor's point of view (E). II After some task performance, subjects were given the same instruction as I (P). III Subjects were instructed to make both observation and causal attributions from their own point of view (S). The subjects in condition I and II were also asked to make causal attributions from their own point of view at the end of the experiment. The results were as follows: 1. P tended to make more external attribution than S, but less than E. 2. Significant discrepancy was found between the attribution scores obtained from actor's point of view and those from subjects' own point of view in E condition, but not in P condition.
In this paper, we regard the coordination of spatial perspectives as the transformation-operations of coordinate system between the child's own viewpoint and the other's one. In order to clarify the developmental feature of transformation-patterns, the 6-10 years children were tested in Experiment I under three conditions: Perspective, plotting, and movement. In Experiment II, the consistency of transformation-patterns was examined. Main results were as follows: (1) Under the perspective condition, most of six years-children did not make any egocentric errors. (2) Some consistent transformation-patterns were identified in children's errors. (3) Both identification of the origin and right understanding of the transformation rules were recognized as essential bases for the coordination of perspectives.
Stroboscopic motion between two triangles in a symmetrical relation was studied in terms of probability of seeing rotation in depth as affected by configurational properties of the triangles, the axis of symmetry and the position of a viewing point. Symmetry was found to be primarily important for seeing the rotation. Corresponding line-elements of the triangles paralleling side by side near to the axis were particularly effective. Neither the orientation of the axis (vertical, horizontal of diagonal) nor the position of a viewing point (on or out of the axis) were effective.
Dynamic characteristics of motor control system of adults with cerebral palsy was examined by a compensatory tracking task with step wave, sine wave and random wave targets. The velocity of responses to step wave targets by the cerebral palsy subjects was lower than that by the normal subjects. In terms of the closed-loop transfer functions in responses to sine wave targets compared with those to random wave targets, it was revealed that the normal subjects could switch their feedback tracking behavior to precognitive control behavior in order to reduce their tracking phase lag which was greater with random wave targets than with sine wave targets, while the cerebral palsy subjects could not do so. These results suggest that the cerebral palsy subjects have difficulty in generating precognitive control behavior to match sine wave targets.