This study was conducted to study the tendency of youth to conform (C) to or resist (R) parents and the social (S) and anti-social (AS) aspects of such attitudes. Youth's attitudes denoted as C>R, C=R, C<R; S>AS, S=AS, and S<AS (<, >: p<.05; =: p>.05; df=1, 60) were analyzed by the Q-sort using structured items. The subjects were 1028 junior high school students (j.h.s.s.) and 37 juvenile delinquents receiving education (e.j.d.). 1. While many j.h.s.s. were C=R, as many were C>R. A few, however, were C<R. 2. Manyy e.j.d. were either C<R or C=R; C>R e.j.d. were relatively fewer. 3. While many j.h.s.s. were S=AS, a few were S>AS, and very few were S<AS. 4. While many e.j.d. were S=AS or S<AS, those who were S=AS were more numerous. 5. Many j.h.s.s. were either C=R·S=AS or C>R·S=AS, and fewer j.h.s.s. were either C<R·S=AS or C>R·S>AS. 6. A relatively large percentage of e.j.d. were C<R·S<AS, C=R·S=AS, C<R·S=AS, or C>R·S=AS. 7. Youth's attitudes to conform or resist parents had both positive and negative aspects.
In this paper, it was examined whether resistance to persuasion due to reactance could occur in emotional experience. After reading another male subject's (fictitious) message about a cartoon, the subject saw the cartoon in question, and evaluated it. The contents of the message were varied in order to manipulate strength of threat to emotional freedom. The low threat message was simply a statement of personal impression of the cartoon, on the other hand, the high threat message was worded so as to force the subject to experience pleasant emotions. In Experiment I, some sex differences were obtained. Toward the male coercive communicator, female subjects complied strongly, but male subjects rather showed weak resistance. In Experiment II, male subjects were forced to experience pleasant (or unpleasant) emotions. The results of funniness ratings showed that persuasiveness of the messages reduced in the high threat conditions regardless of the positions advocated. Additionally, subjective responses to reactance arousal were obtained in both experiments. These results suggested that reactance theory could also be applied to emotions.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the processes of perceiving velocity changes of visual stimuli which were gradually accelerated. In Exp. I, using a rotating pattern of luminous spots as moving stimuli, the time required of the subject to perceive a velocity change was measured in slow, medium and fast positively accelerating conditions. Irrespective of the accelerating rates, subjects tended to respond at the time the velocity difference attained to a constant value. In Exp. II, with the same moving pattern but presented only for a predetermined duration, subjects were asked to judge if there was a velocity change or not. The results showed that the slower was the acceleration, the larger were the velocity differences required of the subject to notice the velocity change. Based upon these results, the velocity change perception was discussed in terms of global and local matching processes.
In the present study, processes of interaction between a cooperatively oriented and a non-cooper-atively oriented group were analyzed. Fifty-four female students were divided into nine pairs of three-person groups, and each pair of groups having different orientations participated in 15 trials of the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. After completion of the trials, each subject was asked to evaluate own and opposite group's intentions in the game, and also to evaluate how successful own group was. Results obtained were as follows: (1) In the course of the trials, non-cooperative groups remained constant in their strategies, whereas cooperative groups became less cooperative, assimilating themselves to their opposite groups. (2) Non-cooperative groups perceived their opponents as similar to themselves, whereas cooperative groups perceived their opponents as different from them and had strong feelings of failure. (3) Cooperative groups attributed responsibility for the game outcome more to non-cooperative groups than to themselves.
This study aims to examine the attractiveness of father to his late-adolescent daughter. In the study Ia, the structure of the attractive father was investigated by means of the factor analysis, and three different factors were found. Each factor was considered to be associated respectively as follows; F1: humanistic attractiveness, F2: attractiveness as a male, and F3: affiliation between father and mother. In the study Ib, the contents of the father-daughter contact in everyday life was investigated and other three factors were found: F1-father who talks on the society, F2-father who acts as a parent, and F3-father's openness as a male. In the study II, later elements which heightened the attractiveness of father were examined. As a result, the most important element for heightening the attractiveness of father was revealed to be the good relationship between father and mother. The second element was revealed the high degree of attractiveness as a male. The third element was the high degree of everyday contact between father and daughter. It was also predicted that for the father-daughter relation, mother was taking a significant role as a indirect medium.
The purpose of this study was to measure the behavioral characteristics of neonates and to investigate the relationship between these characteristics and infant-perception by adults (nurse). Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) were administered to 45 neonates three or four days after birth. Nurses were required to assess the perception of the neonates who received BNBAS during two to five days after birth. The main findings were as follows: (1) A factor analysis was performed on the behavioral items of BNBAS, and six factors corresponding to Osofsky's factors (1977) were extracted. (2) As for the behavioral items, there was no significant sex differences. (3) Some of BNBAS factors related to the infant-perception by nurses.
This study examined the development of comparison skills and the knowledge of comparison strategy in a referential communication paradigm. The subjects were five, eight, and eleven years old children tested under two stimulus conditions. In the Catalogue condition, six drawings of similar referents were presented. In the Referent conditon, only one of these referents was presented. All subjects were given two types of feedback after their initial description. In “detail” feedback, they were asked to reformulate their messages more clearly, and in the “elaborated” feedback, the subjects were asked to further describe the referent by distinguishing it from other referents. Greater descriptive adequacy was found for all three age groups in the Catalogue condition, than in the Referent condition and also greater descriptive adequacy for the “elaborated” feedback than for “detail” feedback. However, the five-year old children showed poorer performance campared to the older children. It was concluded that five-year old children were capable of comparison activity on even complex tasks, but they were not enough competent to adopt comparison strategy appropriately.
The work curve characteristics of preschool children aged five and six, were examined by Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test; Scores were the amount of work, the effect of rest, PF profile fluctuation score and the relations among them. Subjects were 476 kindergarteners aged five and six. The results were as follows: (1) The amounts of work increased with age, and girls' amount of work was larger than that of boys. (2) The effect of rest was seen in the children aged six, but not in the children aged five. (3) PF score tended to decrease as the amount of work increased. (4) There was a negative correlation between the effect of rest and PF score.
This experiment examined the development of the hemispheric specialization and interaction of tactile recognition by the comparison of performance levels in three age groups, i.e. 24 children, 21 adults, and 15 aged people, with the mean ages of 5 yr 7 mo, 22 yr 5 mo and 72 yr 5 mo, respectively. They consisted of right handed males and females in similar numbers, and manifested no abnormality. Stimuli employed were seven random figures approximately 4×4×0.3cm in size and placed 30cm apart at the front of the subjects. Results of the successive interhemispheric matching task revealed that 1) the adults showed the highest and the children showed the worst performance levels among the three groups and 2) the superiority of the left-hand-first condition to the right-hand-first condition was shown in the children whereas no such difference due to hand orders appeared in either the adults or the aged groups. Based on these results, the development on the interhemispheric interaction and hemispheric specialization was discussed.