The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of pictorial integration between central stimuli (animals) and incidental stimuli (objects) on children's central-incidental learning. There were two variables in this experiment: stimulus integration levels (nonintegration: the standard task condition; integration: the condition in which each animal was shown performing an action with an object), and grade levels (kindergarten, second grade, sixth grade, and sophomore). Following a learning task in which instructed visual attention to central stimulus was video taped, incidental learning was measured by three types of test: free recall, cued recall, and recognition. The main findings are as follows: (1) Incidental learning and selective attention to incidental stimulus were higher with the integrated materials than with the nonintegrated ones. (2) Most of incidental scores with the integrated materials improved significantly with age. It was suggested that these findings demonstrated the developmental course of selective information processing which acquired a connection between selective attention and memory activity (mainly, using cues from stimulus integration).
A cognitive aspect of conformity phenomenon in judgement of figural size was investigated. A standard figure was presented with three comparison figures at a time and the subject chose the one from the comparison figures which he thought same to the standard figure in size. The judgement was repeated six times with the same pair of figures. After each judgement, the subject was informed of a fictious but experimentally controlled value about the number of subjects who chose a particular comparison figure. The informed value was relatively constant, or changed either descending or ascending in the series of six trials. As the results, the subsequent judgement made by the subject tended to be influenced by the judgement of others as it was informed to him. The conformity depended not only upon the information given immediately before judgement but upon the sequential trend of the informed values. It was concluded that conformity phenomenon is a dynamic activity involving the subject's cognitive processes.
This study aimed to examine the effects of intention to raise the skin temperature and the use of warm imagery as a strategy for the control of skin temperature without biofeedback. Thirty-two adult female subjects were assigned to either one of following four groups: intention-imagery (It-Im), intention-no imagery (It-NIm), no intention-imagery (NIt-Im), and no intention-no imagery (NIt-NIm) groups. The finger-tip skin temperature was measured during following sessions: first trial, first rest, second trial, and second rest sessions. Results were as follows: (a) the It-Im group was able to raise its skin temperature in the first and the second trial sessions, (b) the It-NIm and NIt-Im groups were not able to raise their skin temperature in any sessions, and (c) the skin temperature of the NIt-NIm group was raised during the first trial session, but it was stopped at the second trial session. These results suggest that both intention and strategy are necessary for the control of skin temperature without biofeedback.
The present paper introduces a method to study human behavior-choice under a given environment. The situation was that of a simulation game using a microcomputer. The environment consisted of mutually exclusive three environmental states: “ENEMY”, “POWER” and “NONE”. In order to survive, the subjects had to maximize the points gained by choosing “power-sensor” under the environmental state “POWER” and to minimize the point loss by choosing “enemy-sensor” when confronted with the environmental state “ENEMY”. The gains and losses corresponding to the behavior-choice were shown to the subjects in the form of a pay-off matrix. Experiment I was conducted to examine the effect of the predictability of the environmental states on the subjects' performance, and Experiment II was conducted to examine the effect of the pay-off matrix on the subjects' performance. Both experiments indicated that subjects used the transitional probabilities of the environmental states as an important cue. In addition, the efficiency of the behavior-choice increased significantly in the case of low predictability of the environmental states under a risky environment.
The present study examined effects of thinking on social judgment. The following two hypotheses were tested: (1) The subjects who thought about a stimulus person would judge statements concerning the person with smaller latitude of acceptance, with larger latitude of rejection, and with smaller latitude of noncommitment than the subjects who were distracted from thinking. (2) The subjects who thought about the stimulus person would spend less time to form the judgments above than the subjects who were distracted from thinking. Twenty-four male undergraduates watched a video-tape which showed a stimulus person. Half of the subjects were instructed to think about the stimulus person for two minutes. The other half of the subjects were distracted from thinking for two minutes. Nine statements which described the behavioral intentions toward the stimulus person were displayed on a screen of a micro-computer. The subjects first judged whether the statements were acceptable, and then judged whether the statements were rejectable. Their judgments and the response time which they spent to judge were measured. The results supported both of the hypotheses.
Twenty-four subjects learned a list of 40 words. They were then tested on half of the words after 4min and on the other half after seven days. Two types of testing were used: (a) recognition of words that had been encountered in the study phase, and (b) perceptual identification in which subjects were asked to report the words presented for 40ms prior to replacement by the mask. Recognition memory was significantly diminished over the 7-day retention interval, whereas performance in perceptual identification after 4min did not differ from performance after seven days. In addition to that, priming effects were confirmed in both retention intervals. These results suggest that priming effects in perceptual identification are independent of recognition memory and task demands of perceptual identification are similar with those of word-fragment completion in which subjects are asked to complete graphemic word-fragments by inserting the missing letters.
In an attempt to examine spatial cognitive processes, 20 adult subjects were asked to explore freely an unfamiliar place and then to report verbally what they had seen in the course of their explorations. There were four experimental sessions in an exploration, during which six map-drawing tasks were given to the subjects. Results showed that the subjects could be classified into two strategy types, the Boundary-dependent type and the Center-dependent type as to their explorative patterns. Typically, the Boundary-dependent subjects went around along the place-boundary at the first sessions, and then explored the inner space, whereas the subjects of the Center-dependent type explored a part of the unfamiliar place at first, went back to the starting points, and then went on to explore another part. The Boundary-dependent subjects appeared to use the available direction cues more than the Center-dependent subjects. The Boundary-dependent subjects may have taken in new informations in relation to reference frame.
The purpose of the present study conducted between 1979 and 1981, is to examine the relationship between body size (standing height, sitting height, body weight, and chest circumference) and measured intelligence level (MIL) of AAMD in 618 mentally retarded children between the ages of 9 and 17. Japanese boys and girls measured by the Ministry of Education in 1979 were used as the intellectually normal control group. The mean standing and sitting heights of the mild level 12 to 14 year old males were significantly higher than those of the severe-profound level males as measured by the Scheffé method. The four body-size means of the severe-profound level males and the mild level females between the ages of 9 and 17 were significantly lower than those of the normal males and females. The mean standing and sitting heights of the moderate level females were significantly lower than those of the normal children. It was concluded that there is no linear relationship between body size and MIL in females.
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of subjects' dependency and strategy patterns on modeling with oddity problems. Each kindergartner was exposed to three phases: pretest, modeling, imitation test, with the last two repeated twice. Also he/she was asked to rate his/her own dependency on model's behavior at five point scale before pretest, modeling 1, and 2, and after imitation test 2. Subjects were categorized into four strategy patterns based on responses performed at each test phase: Rule (using an oddity strategy, i.e., a rule, in a test phase), Partial Rule (using the rule incompletely), Consistency (using a certain strategy different from the rule), and Inconsistency (using different but incorrect strategies). The results revealed that (a) the subjects categorized into the Rule before modeling showed high dependency on model's behavior and used the rule in the imitation test 1 phase, (b) the Consistency showed better performance than the Inconsistency, although, in the Consistency, the subjects who showed high dependency on model's behavior revealed better performance than those who showed low dependency.