Information (in human thoughts) activated by a series of preceding stimuli was defined in this study as the context for the following stimuli. To investigate the factors that affect context formation and the property of the context, semantically related Japanese words (context words: CW) were presented successively to 152 undergraduates. In Exp. 1, subjects decided if a target word (T) following CW was related to the context. The more the number of CW, and the shorter the presentation time/interval of words, the quicker the responses were. However in Exp. 2, where subjects' task was changed to lexical decision, this effect disappeared, suggesting that the effect could not be explained by the mere facilitation of semantic access of T. In Exp. 3, one group of subjects did the same task as in Exp. 1, while the other decided if the same word as T was in CW. In both groups, the context effect was observed for the related and unrelated Ts but not for the identical T though the performance for the identical T was the best. This suggested that both the integrated and the individual representations of CW were formed by the context.
The purpose of present study was to clarify the rule system for the transformation-operations of coordinate system between the child's own viewpoint and the other's one in spatial representation tasks with forming the action of projection (AP). Based on performance levels of the projection test for first-grade children (6:09), six pairs of matched subjects who had not yet acquired AP were selected among 34 children. The training program of five steps consisted of the following three subordinate operations which were assumed to underlie AP; identification of the origin, setting of the X-Y axes, and transformation of the coordinates (X, Y) between viewpoints. Main results were as follows: (1) The training program raised the level of AP from low to high. (2) Through analysis of transformation-patterns, the rule system illustrated Fig. 4 which was constructed with three factors; transformation of the axis, reversal of the axis, and degree of persistence of the child's own view was identified. (3) The acquired transformation ability improved highly the performance of Piaget's “three mountains task”.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate effects of orthographic information of stimulus items on the long-term memory. In Experiment I, an incidental learning paradigm was employed in which 24 undergraduates were asked to perform a semantic or a structural orienting task. The levels-of-processing effect was observed for both recall and orthographic recognition tests. In the orthographic recognition test where a target word was presented in Kanji and Hiragana, subjects were required to judge which mode was the same as the one used for the encoding phase. In both semantic and structural conditions, recognition scores were found significantly higher than the chance levels. This results implied that orthographic information is stored in long-term memory when information is processed. Experiment II, in which availability of orthographic information was manipulated using 16 undergraduates as subjects, demonstrated that appropriate orthographic information facilitates recognition performance and reduces reaction time. These results provided some support for the dual process model of recognition in which the detection of familiarity and the utilization of retrieval are postulated as basic mechanisms of recognition.
Two tracking experiments were carried out to investigate the motor control system in adults with cerebral palsy. The first experiment analysed the frequency response characteristics and the surface electromyogram from biceps brachii and triceps brachii, when the cerebral palsy subjects made isometric contractions during the pursuit tracking task with sine wave targets. Patterns of reciprocal innervation of the antagonists explained the frequency response characteristics of tracking behavior of the cerebral palsy subjects. The second experiment analysed perceived response velocity during the compensatory tracking task by means of magnitude estimation method. Fitting power function to the relation between the input frequency and the perceived response velocity, coefficients of determination for the cerebral palsy subjects were found to be lower than those for the normal subjects. It suggests that the cerebral palsy subjects can discriminate their response velocity less exactly than the normal subjects in manual tracking system.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of “fear” and “credibility of others' behavior (subject's belief that someone knows the correct escape route)” on conformity and fixation of the subject's choice of an escape route. The experiment was conducted in a 2 (fear=FE vs. non-fear=NF)×2 (high credibility=HC vs. low credibility=LC) factorial design. In the early stage of the experiment, the degree of conformity was greater in the FE condition than in the NF condition. However, in the later stage, conformity gradually fell down in the FE condition but not in the NF condition. The increase rate in conformity was higher in the HC condition than in the LC condition. The degree of fixation on a given route was higher in the FE condition than in the NF condition.
In an incidental memory task, subjects performed an orienting task of rating kanji stimuli on semantic or graphemic attribute scales followed by an unexpected free recall. Three rating conditions involved processing on (1) one scale, (2) three scales correlated with each other, and (3) three uncorrelated scales. Subjects who made rating on three scales recalled more than those on one scale. More recall was observed under the rating on three uncorrelated scales than on correlated scales in the semantic orienting task, whereas in the graphemic orienting task the difference between the two was not observed.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relations between very long-term memory of prose and the five preceding ratings of learned materials. Recalls from “Tales of Heike” disclosed that the short sentence of about 10-letters worked as memory unit. Recalls from the song of “Hana” was facilitated by accompanied music condition. Degree of memorization, feeling of knowing, ease of learning, motivation of learning, and degree of liking related to the performance of recall. It was suggested that the basic strategy of rote learning was the grouping of words based on the surface structure.
Twenty-two subjects completed two blocks of trials in which each involved presentation of Japanese words and foreign loan words written in katakana requiring a lexical classification. In the first block, words and non-words were presented, and in the second block, original words in addition to new words were presented. Reaction times in the lexical classification were facilitated when Japanese words were repeated but no such facilitation was shown for foreign loan words. The results suggest that orthographic familiarity plays an important role in word recognition.
Diffusion process of word-processing behavior of those staff members of an research institute during the period of four years after its introduction in 1979 was investigated. Data were collected in a personal interview with 88 staff members of the institute aged between 22 and 58 years old. Major findings were as follows: (1) the percentage of newly acquired users to non-users in each year increased as years, showing the acceleration in the speed of diffusion, (2) the percentages of users tended to be higher in younger persons than in older persons, and (3) the transmission of the behavior frequently occurred between persons of the similar age (2-7 years different), and between persons of the same group (same department or same profession). The latter two findings were analogous to those obtained in the previous study of diffusion processes of new behaviors of Japanese monkeys by the Japanese etholoists.
In this survey of the development of German psychology, the following topics are addressed: (1) the historical development of psychology in West Germany (the pre-World War II period, emigration of a number of prominent German psychologists during the 1930's, the academic vacuum following World War II, re-establishment in the 1960's), (2) contemporary German psychology (the university system, expansion of departments of psychology, increase in the number of students majoring in psychology, establishment of extrauniversity institutes for psychological research), (3) the contributions of contemporary German psychologists (increasing responsibilities to diverse areas of German society, contacts and cooperation at the international level). The article concludes by outlining plans for a cross-cultural study of “aggression”. Hope is expressed for a continuing dialogue between West German and Japanese psychologists.