Pigeons were trained on a cross-modal conditional discrimination task in which the subjects were required to select visual comparison stimuli depending upon auditory conditional stimuli. In simultaneous condition, the auditory conditional stimuli were presented until the subjects selected one of the two visual stmmli. All subjects attained above 80% correct responeses within 21-64 sessions. After simultaneous condition, all subjects were trained in 0-1-2- and 3-s delayed conditions. They showed above 80%-90% correct responses in zero delayed training. In 1-s and 2-s delayed conditions, the percentage of correct responses was not significantly different in comparison with 0-s delayed condition. The results indicated that pigeons could learn audio-visual cross-modal conditional discrimination task both in simultaneous and delayed conditions and had no greater difficulty learning them than learning visual (unimodal) conditional discrimination.
In this study, it was hypothesized that (1) both task- and performance-contingent rewards would undermine intrinsic motivation for high-interest task but enhance it for low-interest one, that (2) in the high-interest task conditions, performance-contingent rewards would undermine intrinsic motivation more than task-contingent ones, and that (3) in the low-interest task conditions, performance-contingent rewards would enhance intrinsic motivation more than task-contingent ones. Ninety female undergraduate subjects were offered task-contingent (300 yen for participating in the task for 8 min) or performance-contingent (piece rate: 15 yen for each 10 characters deciphering) rewards, or no reward, for working on a decipherment task called a cipher game of high or low interest. Results indicated that both task- and performance-contingent rewards, which did not differ from each other, undermined intrinsic motivation for high-interest task. Task-contingent rewards enhanced intrinsic motivation for low-interest task, but performance-contingent rewards did not affect it. These results were discussed in terms of a general approach to the self-perception of intrinsic motivation.
An experiment was conducted to compare the magnitudes of the Pulfrich stereoeffect under two viewing conditions: (a) fixating a stationary point and (b) tracking a moving target. Three different transmittances of ND filters were used for each condition. The null method was employed to estimate the magnitude of the stereoeffect, in which the apparent depth was “nulled” by adjusting the physical depth of the target moving in an elliptical path in the eye-level horizontal plane so that no depth was seen. The results obtained from two experienced subjects showed that: 1) the stereoeffect increased as the transmittance of the filter was decreased, and 2) the stereoeffect was larger in the tracking condition than in the fixating condition for all three transmittances of the filters. The results were discussed within the context of depth information available for the visual system.
Semantic differential technique (SD) is often applied to measure personality. Here, a new scale (Fig. 1) which is a modification of the SD, was applied to 42 subjects. This scale (‘SDsep’) attempts to measure contradictory components in personality, separately. The ordinary SD can not be applied to those contradictory components. In ‘SDsep’ the subjects could rate both sides of the antonym independently, for example, one could check fairly active and fairly passive at the same time. Although monopolar SD (SDmono) can measure the contradictory components separately, ‘SDsep’ has the advantage that it makes the meaning of adjectives clearer by the mutual prescription in the antonym. ‘SDsep’ considers the possibility that the subject was aware of the existence of contradictory traits in him/herself. In this respect, the reaction of the subjects were varied. In conclusion, the significance and the feature of ‘SDsep’ was ascertained.
Fourty-two female students, either individually or in three person groups, were instructed to be cooperative and participated in 15 trials of the Prisoner's Dilemma Game against a simulated noncooperative opponent which made only 20 percent cooperative choices. After completion of the trials, subjects in the individual condition were asked to evaluate their own and their opponent's intentions during the game on nine adjective scales, and to evaluate their successfulness. Subjects in the group condition were asked to discuss the same items and to respond by consensus. (1) Over the course of the trials, both individuals and groups became less cooperative, assimilating to their opponent's strategy. (2) Perceived dissimilarities between self and the opponent on nine adjective scales were larger in groups than in individuals, with groups reporting stronger feelings of failure than individuals about the game outcomes as well. Thus, the prediction of group polarization effects was supported. (3) Groups attributed more responsibility to the opponent than to themselves, whereas individuals attributed equal responsibility to both.
The effects of reading goal on text processing were investigated by manipulating three factors: The reading goal, the amount of available resource and the amount of required resource. The first was manipulated by giving subjects the different reading goals (essay, rating). The second was manipulated by the amount of concurrent task. The third was manipulated by abstractness of texts. Two experiments were carried out, and in both experiments subjects were asked to recall the text unexpectedly after hearing the text. In the first experiment with seventy-two college students as subjects, the first and second factors were manipulated and the main effect of reading goal was obtained as the results. In the second experiment with forty-four subjects, the first and third were manipulated and the interaction between both factors was obtained.
Discrepant findings have been reported during recent years on the effect of set size in number conservation tasks. The purpose of this paper is to bring a rapprochement between the conflicting sets of findings by considering the problem of response criteria. Subjects for the study consisted of 168 children aged four-six years. The results obtained indicated that the performance difference between small and large number conservation tasks was significant with judgments-only criteria but not with judgments-plus-explanations criteria. It was concluded that the discrepant findings are due partly to a lack of consensus among different investigators concerning the appropriate response criteria for inferring the presence of Piagetian concepts.
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of empathy on sharing behavior under the presence or absence of another person (experimenter). Eighty-eight six-year-old children were divided into High Empathic Group (H) and Low Empathic Group (L) by their empathy test scores. The number of shared chips out of nine rewarded chips was used as the measure of prosocial behavior. Group H donated significantly more chips to poor children than Group L. In Group L the subjects under the presence condition donated significantly more chips than those under the absence condition, but in Group H no significant difference was found between these conditions. These findings suggest that preschool children's prosocial behavior is motivated by both empathy and presence of another person.
The purpose of the present study was to identify the dimensional features of achievement motivation and to investigate the nature of the relationship between achievement motivation and personality. Doi's motivation scales and Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory were administered to 217 male university students. Factor analyses and canonical correlation analysis were used to extract two dimensions of achievement motivation- (1) affiliative achievement motivation and (2) non-affiliative achievement motivation. Affiliative achievement motivation was positively correlated with achievement, affiliation and general activity and negatively correlated with lack of cooperativeness. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was positively correlated with achievement, depression, nervousness and lack of cooperativeness and negatively correlated with affiliation and thinking extraversion. These findings suggested that the relationship between achievement motivation and personality may depend on cultural factors.
To investigate the internal criteria involved in pattern goodness rating, 20 subjects rated 48 dot-patterns on 25 semantic scales in which goodness was included as one scale. By principal factor analysis and varimax rotation, four factors were extracted. The first factor accounted for 51.8% of the total variance, on which coherency, regularity, and complexity scales had high factor loadings. The factor scores of stimulus patterns on this factor showed good correspondence to their cognitive transformation structures proposed by Imai (1977). The remaining three factors could be regarded as evaluation, activity, and potency in Osgood's (1957) terms. The goodness rating had a high loading on the first factor, also with fairly high loadings on the evaluation and the activity factor. Furthermore, principal component analyses of individual data revealed that the criteria in goodness rating had large individual differences. It is suggested that the psychological concept of pattern goodness has unique connotations and that without such a concept, the ratings of naive subjects will diverge.