Eighteen undergraduate students participated in two experiments which were designed to investigate the effects of noise letters upon selective identification of target letters. The reaction time of pressing buttons to the target letter was measured under various combinations of accompanying noise letters located 1°48′ apart from a target in visual angle, and added noise letters inserted between the target and accompanying noise letters. The results provided evidence in favor of the hypothesis which attributes the interfering effects of noise letters not to the processing level, but to the response level. Moreover, the results suggested that the noise letter adjacent to a target plays an important part in this interference, though the noise letters can be processed even in the position as much as 1°48′ apart from a target, and that it is especially important what relations the adjacent noise letter has with the response of the target.
Seven male and seven female subjects were ask to make pitch recognition after a retention interval, during which a six tone-melody was interpolated. Two interpolated melody conditions were used: “High-Tonality melodies” and “Low-Tonality melodies”. It was found that in the conditions of “High-Tonality melodies”, correct recognition rates were superior for “the scale tones” at the pitch positions Do, Re, Mi, Sol, La relative to each of the interpolated melodies. Relationship between short-term memory for pitch and melody recognition was discussed with our hypothesis that we have an internal modal scale schema. Moreover, a few predicted figures of response were discussed with reference to our data.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of attitudes of the model (teacher) on modeling after aggressive or altruistic behavior in children. Based on the score of CCT (children's cognition of teacher) test, sixty children of five-year-olds were selected and modeling sessions were administered to them. Their teachers and mothers were asked to answer a questionnaire on aggression and altruism for children in everyday life situations. The following are the main results. Boys who were rejected by their teacher displayed higher imitative aggression scores than other boys and they showed more aggressive behaviors than altruistic behaviors. Girls who were accepted by their teacher displayed higher imitative altruism scores and they showed more altruistic behavior than aggressive one. There was no ralationship between this modelinc effects and aggression or altruism in children.
In order to approximate the variety of natural categories, two kinds of stimuli whose attributes vary according to different multivariate normal distributions are generated on CRT screen. Twenty undergraduate and graduate students served as subjects. Subject's task was to discriminate the stimuli. Results revealed that subject's performance can be explained very well by the parameters of the distributions (Exp. 1). Although in previous studies prototypes have been assumed to be the mean value or central tendency of category instances, there is another possibility, especially when two or more concepts are simultaneously learned, that they have attributes which are emphasized. This hypothesis was confirmed in Exp. 2, using 30 undergraduates as subjects. It was argued that we must distinguish at least two kinds of prototypes: the one formed by the most frequent instances and the other the most discriminate in contrast with the other concepts.
The present study explored the effects of subjects' own inputs on their opinions on allocation and interpersonal attraction for others who advocated opinions on reward allocation. The main hypotheses were that high-input subjects would prefer equal to equitable allocation but evaluate others favoring equity better than those favoring equality, while low-input subjects would prefer equitable to equal allocation but evaluate others favoring equality better than those favoring equity. Subjects participated in a 4-person dilemma game, and received the scores of four members. Then they were asked for their opinions on allocation publicly, and were provided with mediumminput members' allocation choices for the rating of these members' impressions. The results generally supported the main hypotheses. Although the subjects who chose self-interested allocation liked the members favoring allocation to their advantage better than those favoring allocation to their disadvantage, the subjects who chose modest allocation liked the former as well as the latter in spite that they evaluated the latter as fairer than the formers.
The present study is intended to offer stronger grounds to Snyder & Fromkin's assertion for construct validity of the Need For Uniqueness Scale (1977, 1980). Four hundred and eighty-six college students filled out a Japanese version of the Need For Uniqueness Scale along with some other questionnaires related to the hypothesized disposition of uniqueness seeking. The present version of the scale showed (a) a high internal consistency (α=.795), (b) a high testretest reliability (γ=.876), and (c) an extremely low correlation with approval motive (γ=-.063), thus fulfilling the essentially desirable characteristics of a psychological scale. Advocation of construct validity of the scale was justified by (a) a significant positive relation between the scale score and a uniqueness preference score based on the subjects' preference for a professional baseball team, favorite type of novels, taste for jewels, preferred leisure activities, etc., and (b) a significant negative relation of the subjects' number of Rorschach popular responses to the scale score. Implication of these evidences is discussed with regard to the evaluation of need for uniqueness as a dispositional trait. A reproduction of the exact wording and format of the items and a circumstantial report of the scale score distribution are also presented.
Experiment I was conducted to investigate the relationship between motivation to play with the game, goal-setting, self-evaluation, and motivation to persist the game in preschool children. Results indicated that motivation to play with the game seemed to persist only when children could evaluate their own results appropriately. Experiment II was conducted to examine the effect of self-evaluation on motivation to persist the game. As predicted, children who changed their self-evaluation through treatment exhibited greater improvement of game persistence than those who did not change their self-evaluation. The results suggested the important role of self-evaluation in preschool children's task performance.
This study investigated audience status as a manipulation of evaluation apprehension and its effects upon free recall performance. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to one of four audience conditions (Alone, Experimenter, Peer, and Experimenter and Peer present). They studied three lists of 12 Japanese nonsence syllables for a single presentation. The experimental manipulations were introduced after the first recall. Recall was tested for immediate and delayed periods. In contrast with the Alone condition, three social conditions inhibited the recall behaviors. This social impairment of recall reflects an audience-induced reticence. The results are discussed in terms of the drive and self-presentational theories of social facilitation.
A life span survey of conflict induced in color naming when words and colors appear in incongruent combination was carried out. Subjects' ages ranged from six years to 89 years, totaling 721. As the index of conflict, (C-B)/A was used. The result indicated that conflict scores were highest in six-year-old children and the next highest in the eldery of 70 to 89 years. The result of ANOVA indicated no sex difference on conflict scores, but showed a difference in faster performance by females on the color and color-word cards. The result suggested that six-year olds are immature in cognitive ability and that the 70-year olds and above declined in their cognitive ability. The elevation of conflict scores in 10 years may be due to the stage of puberty.
An inventory form for the personality description based on the principle of the three traits theory for the work curve of the Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test was investigated from the factor-analytic point of view. Three kinds of analyses were performed. First of all, the 66 items of the present form were administrated and a tentative orthogonal factor solution was obtained. Secondly, the 20 items for a simplified pattern in the sense of “simple structure” were selected based on the result of the first factor rotation, and the further orthogonal factor rotation was applied to the data based on the selected items so that the assumption for the three traits, primacy (A), variability (B), and, recency (C) were confirmed factor-analytically. Finally, in order to increase the number of items for providing an extended form for academic and practical use, more 10 items were added to the 20 items of the second analysis after applying the third orthogonal factor rotation so that the new form consisting of 30 items was obtained. Some relationships between the jrsent work and the one of Eysenck and Eysenck (1968) were discussed.