To clarify the four processing stages in the Stroop task (input, decision, response selection, and output), and to examine on which stage or stages the interference occurs, seven undergraduates were used as subjects in a color-naming task with color names, words strongly associated with color, words weakly associated with color, a neutral word, and “xxx” as control stimulus. Color-patch pieces were also used to measure the operant level of reaction time. Main results were as follows: 1. On the congruent trials, the response time was shorter for color names than for the neutral word, control word, and words with weak association. 2. On the incongruent trials, the response time was longer for color names than for the neutral word, control word, and words with weak and strong association. Moreover, the interaction between pre-exposure duration and word conditions was significant; the difference of response time due to word conditions as significant when the pre-exposure duration was short, while it was not significant when the duration was long. 3. The neutral word and the control word gave similar response time, which was longer than that for color-patch pieces. From these results it is concluded that the interference in the Stroop task is most likely to occur on the decision and the output stages.
To examine the comprehension of Japanese giving and receiving sentences in children, 43 nursery school children, age ranging from 3:5 to 6:0, were asked to perform an act-out task that requires the understanding of simple giving and receiving sentences. The results indicate the tendency that the semantic interpretation of “NPga-(NPo)-NPni-ageru (give) sentence form” was applied to all other sentences in each age group. Children appeared to use word-order strategy and source-as-point-of-view strategy at the same time. It was also suggested that older children, who could utilize particles as cue to comprehend sentences, did not use word-order strategy as much as younger children did.
We administered Averill's questionnaire on “the everyday experience of anger” to 123 adults and 130 university students who lived in Osaka, Japan. They were asked to rate their recent anger episodes in terms of the instigator, motive, response, etc. It was found that (1) there were two factor dimensions in the motives of anger which were interpreted as hostile and instrumental motives; (2) hostile anger was more aroused when the instigators were not so familiar to them and had authority over them, while instrumental anger was more aroused when the instigators were their loved ones or friends; (3) hostile anger, compared with instrumental, was intensified principally when the subjects perceived their instigators had malicious intent; and (4) the subjects who felt hostile anger, compared with instrumental, were likely to wish to commit aggression against their instigators.
Japanese postpositional particles ‘wa’ and ‘ga’ have discourse function; ‘wa’ conveys old information and ‘ga’ marks new information. The purpose of this study was to examine experimentally the development of differentiated use of ‘wa’ and ‘ga’ according to the discourse function. Ninety subjects of 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 years old and adults made and told stories by looking at pictures in an elicited production task. Subjects at the age of 4 and 5 used only ‘ga’ regardless of context. From 6 to 12 year old subjects began to use ‘wa’ for the referent which appeared in the previous context, but not constantly. Fourteen-year-old subjects and adults systematically differentiated ‘wa’ and ‘ga’ according to the discourse function. ‘Wa’ and ‘ga’ appear in two-word utterance stage, but our study suggests that the complete acquisition of these two particles is very late.
To study two aspects of masculinity-femininity in personality, i.e., mother-father and womanman, 65 middle school students, 150 high school students and 219 university students were asked to rate the desirability for them of each item of a 45-item questionnaire, which described varied characteristics of these two aspects. Neither mother-father scale nor woman-man scale was a single bipolar dimension. Mother-father scale was rated to be more desirable than womanman scale by both male and female subjects. Female subjects seemed to have some conflicts and difficulties in the formation of these two aspects in masculinity and femininity.
The purpose of this study is to investigate one's emotional reactions to social behaviors of the other one. Here, the interpersonal sentiments, i.e., persistent feelings of the other as liking or disliking, were distinguished from the emotions, i.e., temporary and intensive affects as joy or anger. Subjects were 30 males and 30 females. They were asked what kind of emotions people in general would feel in the following social interactions. Interaction situations were constructed by the combinations of three variables, i.e., two sentiments to the other one, 10 social behaviors of the other one, and sexes of the other one. Results showed that one's emotions were heavily dependent upon the interpersonal sentiments to the other one. People would feel very different emotions even to the same kinds of behaviors of the other one, according to the differences of sentiments to the other. In addition, people would have very different emotional reactions to the different behaviors of the same person.
The effect of delayed auditory feedback (DAF) was investigated by reciting melodies of three levels of complexity (simple, medium and complex), consisting of five tones and five beats per second. Four normal adult subjects recited these melodies with/pa/under 10 conditions of 0 to 900ms delay (100ms step). DAF effect was measured by DAF index (1-CPR(t)/CPR (0), CPR: correct performance rate per second, t: delay time). The results were as follows. All subjects had high DAF indices on the complex melody, middle on the medium and low on the simple. The maximum DAF indices were observed under conditions of 100 to 300ms delay time. The vocalization was most frequent to tones with leap in musical interval. The individual differences of DAF effect were observed. The results were discussed by the external and internal feedback systems for speech control.
In order to explore a transitional pattern of mother's psycho-social stress accompanying the age of developmentally-disabled child, we analized the stress patterns obtained from 1036 mothers of mental retarded and autistic children by means of 10 stress scales consisted of four or five items for each scale. Mothers of 3 to 15 yrs old children, classified by cross-sectional method, were divided by their child's age into seven groups, and multiple-range tests were applied to the mean stress scores of mothers in the seven groups for each of two disability. In the results, we found three kinds of transitional patterns of stress. They were named as follows: No change type, Decreased type, and increased-at-first, but later-decreased type. These transitional patterns are common to two disabilities in the same scale, and f uthermore it is worthy of notice that the stage of changing point of increase or decrease of the amount of stress coincides with the periods of child's entrance to primary school and/or junior high school at almost all scales.
To examine relationships between loneliness and various aspects of self-consciousness in high-school students, UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1979), Self-Consciousness Scale (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), Self-Monitoring Scale (Snyder, 1974), and a High-School Life Questionnaire were administered to the first grade students in a high school (N=182). Loneliness (α=.885), higher for males than for females, was significantly correlated with various aspects of their high-school lives. Loneliness was negatively correlated with self-esteem and self-monitoring, and was positively correlated with social anxiety. Only for males, a positive correlation was obtained between loneliness and private self-consciousness. Discriminant analysis and other correlational analyses also suggested that loneliness in males was related to various aspects of self-consciousness.
Hippocampectomized (N=19) and control (N=18) rats were trained on an elevated T-maze in which place, cue and response strategies employed could be separated from one another. For ni e hippocampals and nine controls, a place task was followed by a cue task (place-cue condition) while the order was reversed for the remaining subjects (cue-place condition). The erects of hippocampal lesions on acquisition and transfer of place and cue learning were assessed in terms of correct responses and strategies used by the rats. In both training conditions, performance of hippocampals was significantly impaired for the place task but not for the cue task. Hippocampals used a cue strategy in the cue task but employed a response strategy in the place task. Controls, on the other hand, used a place strategy in the place task and a cue strategy in the cue task. These results suggest that rats with hippocampal lesions are impaired in their ability to employ a place strategy with the result that other strategies are adopted in a place task situation.