A Creative Imagination Scale revised in Japanese (JACIS) was developed to measure various aspects of Japanese creative activity. Administered to 136 college freshmen, the scale was found to have adequate reliability and validity. Results indicated that, compared to American or Australian students, Japanese students tended to be less active, relaxed and comfortable in their imaginative activity. High, medium and low scoring groups (N=15 each) were formed on the basis of JACIS results and the JARAT (RAT revised in Japanese) and CIT (Fusion Test of Composite Images) tests were then administered to the members of these groups. Although the correlation coefficients between two tests of three each did not achieve statistical significance, a factor analysis suggested that Japanese students might not be as efficient as their American and Australian counterparts in controlling images autonomously.
When a discrepancy existed between an actor's and observers' attribution of responsibility for an action leading to aversive consequences, what would result? In the present study, the subjects were given occasion to make a high or low initial choice for arguing that toothbrushing was a dangerous, unhealthy habit. After delivering their speech before a videotape camera, they received feedback which informed that the observers unanimously perceived the subjects to make choice or no choice. Attitude change on toothbrushing and toothpastes was observed in the highinitial and observer-perceived choice condition. Change was observed only on toothpastes in the low-initial and observer-perceived choice condition. No attitude change occurred in the two other conditions where the observers perceived no choice. The results were more consistent with impression management theory than with cognitive dissonance theory. However, the results indicating some effects of the initial choice on attitude change suggested that impression management theory should also be revised.
This study examined Ortony's (1979) model of asymmetric similarity between constituents of metaphors In Experiment I, 35 subjects rated the similarity of topic (subject) to vehicle (predcate) in 96 metaphorical and anomalous sentences (Noun-A is Noun-B). Another group of 32 subjects listed features (attribute-adjectives) of each topic or vehicle, and the salience of features was measured by their frequency of mention. Multiple regression analysis indicates that the saliences of common features and of distinctive features predict the rated similarity well. Multiple discriminant analysis indicates that metaphor, reversed metaphor and anomalous sentence are distinguished in the relative degrees of salience of common features, as predicted by Ortony's model. Experiment II manipulated the salience of common or distinctive features by applying nine types of adjective modification to topic or vehicle (e. g., Adjective Noun-A is Noun-B). Twenty-eight subjects ranked these metaphors according to the similarity of topic to vehicle, and another group of 28 subjects ranked the same set of metaphors according to the comprehensibility as well as the intensity of interest they felt in each metaphor. Results show that the adjectives which cue (make more salient) common features increase similarity and comprehensibility, while the adjectives which cue distinctive features decrease them, but increase metaphor interest. These results are consistent with Ortony's model.
Some aspects of the dynamic relationship between situational factors and subjects' behavior in a social dilemma were analyzed in a time series analysis of the data obtained from an experiment simulating the tragedy of the commons. In the experiment using 21 three-person groups, subjects shared a common forest, displayed on their computer screens, containing two to four trees. These trees grew in size and value as long as they were left intact, so that premature harvesting was not desirable. On the other hand, an individual subject could lose opportunities to harvest and make profits if other subjects harvested the trees before he/she did. Results of the experiment indicated: (1) the size of the forest did not have effects upon subjects' behavior, and (2) subjects' behavior in the groups which attained common prosperity were more sensitive to other members' behavior and the interaction between other members' behavior and the current situation than the subjects in other groups which failed to attain such common prosperity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the organizational strategy of memory in mental retardates. Forty young (mean CA=9:07, mean IQ=60) and forty old retardates (mean CA=13:07, mean IQ=58) were required to learn a list of sixteen pictures from four taxonomic categories. Learning was continued during four trials by study-test method. In B-C treatment subjects were presented the pictures in category block and required to recall in constrained method with category. In R-F treatment subjects were presented pictures in random order and asked free recall. The effect of an organizational strategy on recall prompted by B-C treatment was found to be greater in the old retardates than in the young retardates. Thus the memory strategy of retardates showed the same developmental order with time lag as in normal children, and the developmental lag theory (Zigler, 1969) was supported.
Research on adolescents in romantic love has suggested that their heterosexual relationship may be influenced by their attachment to their mothers and to friends of the same sex. Three hundred fifty-nine college students responded to a questionnaire designed to explore this correlation. The results indicated that male sexual behavior and feelings of romantic love towards their girl friends were not influenced by the attachment to their mothers nor to their friends whereas those of the females were. Females who were involved in intimate sexual relationship had weaker attachment to their mothers; on the other hand, females who had strong romantic feelings, yet without sexual relationships, tended to have strong attachment to their friends of the same sex.
The twelve hypothetical dimensions of the Yatabe-Guilford (Y-G) personality inventory, which has been widely used in Japan, were analyzed by the orthogonal complete procrustean factor analytical rotation. After discussion of purpose, the strategy for research. was outlined with special regard to samples and the factor analytical techniques employed. The entire orthogonal procrustean matrix was presented, and the agreement with the hypothesis of twelve dimensions, was assessed.
A priming experiment was conducted to investigate how semantic context affects the perception of a briefly exposed Kanii target. On each trial, a Kanii or a plus (neutral) was presented as the prime stimulus for 1s. When the prime was a Kanii, subjects were required to imagine any compound word, the first letter of which was to be that prime. After a blank of 500 ms, a target Kanii was briefly exposed followed by a patterned mask and two response alternatives, one of which the subject was asked to choose. The duration of the target was so adjusted that each subject could respond correctly at approximately 75% level. The % choice response was higher when the prime and the target made up a compound word (related condition) and also matched to the imagined word (facilitation) than when not (neutral condition). When the prime and the target were unrelated, the performance was the worst (inhibition). In the related condition, however, responses were more accurate even when the prime-target pair did not match to the imagined compound word than in the unrelated condition. These results suggest that semantic priming effect occurs automatically regardless of whether the subject may expect the target or not.
Recent advances on the study of circadian rhythm are reviewed and discussed on the following topics: (1) its phylogeny (the existence of extraretinal photoreceptors, photoreceptors for entrainment, the location of circadian oscillators), (2) its ontogeny and aging, (3) its central neural mechanism (the ablation study of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the electrophysiological study of the SCN in multiple unit activity and single neuron activity in rat hypothalamic slice preparation, the use of 2-DG as a functional marker, the transplantation of the SCN, the afferents and efferents of SCN and its peptides), (4) multiple oscillators theory (the anticipatory activities in rats with SCN lesions in response to the restricted feeding schedule, internal desynchronization, splitting), and (5) its psychological significance. Many lines of evidence have shown that the SCN is a putative circadian pacemaker in mammals. On the other hand, other lines of evidence suggest that there are other oscillators outside the SCN. Finally it is emphasized that the chronobiological viewpoint is necessary for the development of psychology.