Two experiments were carried out to examine priming effects on a mental comparison task. In experiment I the category names (related/unrelated) or plus sign (neutral) were used as prime stimuli, followed by 10 item-pairs which belonged to the category of fruit or animal as target stimuli that were compared in terms of their real size. In experiment II the instance names were used as prime stimuli instead of the category names, and other conditions were the same as experiment I. The results of two experiments showed that priming effects occurred in a mental comparison task, and that those effects did not interact with the factors related to comparison. Priming effects in experiment II, particularly the inhibition effect were smaller than those in experiment I. These findings suggested that the strength of the semantic relatedness between prime and target influenced priming effects not only in the automatic spreading activation process but in the limited-capacity attentional process.
Effects of levels-of-processing on retention of visually presented target and nontarget letter words were studied in relation to the amount of processing resources expended on the attended task. Attention was directed to targets by the shadowing. Targets and nontargets were distinguished by sensorial or semantic attributes. Processing resources expended were measured by reaction time at an auditory signal during the shadowing. Experiment I, with 20 subjects, showed that recall rate of targets and nontargets was higher and the expended resources were greater, in semantic than in sensorial processing. However, in Experiment II, with 48 subjects, the task difficulty was balanced with respect to shadowing errors and the expended resources were found no more different with different levels-of-processing, while d' measures of targets and nontargets were greater in semantic than in sensorial condition. It was concluded that the effects of levels-of-processing depended not on the resources expended, but on discriminative attributes.
In Experiment I, it was shown that in implicit bargaining, subjects, 154 college students, could coordinate their expectations independently without aids of communication, relying on clues found in the situations. In Experiment II using the same conflict situations and 48 college students, each subject engaged in explicit bargaining with a stooge who always took the competitive strategy. Either the subjects or the stooge made a “commitment” by making the first choice and announcing it before the other could make his choice. The other's choice was also communicated to the first person, so that the outcome was known to both. A high degree of resistance to the stooge's non-compromising choice was observed only when subjects could take advantage of the situational clues and could make the commitment. It was indicated that even if the first person's choice has complete control over the outcome, clues that can coordinate expectations in implicit bargaining have powerful influences in explicit one as well.
Three experiments were conducted to examine the differences of constructional disabilities between left and right hemiplegic patients with cerebrovascular disorders. In Exp. I, 32 left and 30 right hemiplegics were given the Block Design Test. In Exp. II, the Visual Cognition Test, consisted of 10 subtests to measure the abilities which were presumed to be essential for the process of block design construction, was performed. In Exp. III, the patients with constructional disabilities were given various aids to facilitate the constructional activities. The main results were as follows: (a) Constructional disabilities were more frequent and severe in left than right hemiplegic patients. (b) There were qualitative differences in construction between the two groups. (c) The factors underlying constructional disabilities were responsible to visuoperceptual disorder and programming disorder of behavior for both groups. However, visuoperceptional disorder in left hemiplegics and programming disorder in right hemiplegics manifested relatively closer relation to constructional disabilities than others.
An attempt was made to see the relationship of latent handedness (Luria, 1966) with individual hemisphericity, which was evaluated by a version of Hemisphericity Test (HT) devised by Ogura & Hatta (1983) and Cognitive Mode Questionnaire (CMQ; Sakano & Ohgishi, 1983). Subjects were 125 undergraduates (69 males and 56 females). In males, one of those three criteria for latent handedness, i. e. arm-folding subtest, showed a connection with HT; right-arm-uppermost subjects (R group) preferred verbal to nonverbal stimuli more often than left-arm-uppermost subjects (L group). These results support Sakano's hypothesis that the arm-folding subtest reflects individual hemisphericity (Sakano, 1982). Also, HT scores differed significantly between those two groups classified by CMQ. This result indicates the connection between CMQ and individual hemispheri-city, whereas those subtests for latent handedness did not show any relation with CMQ. In females, no significant relation could be found among those three tests. Possibly these sex differences are related with those sex differences responsible for the degree of cerebral asymmetry.
The present study was aimed at examining the influence of empathy to the sender of information about a company upon its receivers. Commercial slides of two kinds, one created by company professionals and the other by fellow students unrelated to the company, were combinated with two kinds of instruction (“This was created by company professionals” and “This was created by fellow students”). Each of 94 college students was asked to check 19 5-point bipolar scales on the image of the company before and after the presentation of the information and slides under one of these four conditions. In terms of attitude change between the two measurements, the subjects informed that the slides had been produced by fellow students tended to have an improved image of the company, regardless of who had actually created the slides.
To examine two approaches to the measurement of identity, the identity dimension approach and the identity status approach, an identity dimension scale based on Bourne's theoretical analysis (1978) was first constructed and validated. This scale was then administered together with an identity status scale constructed by Nato (1983) to 161 male and 135 female university students, and means of identity dimension score were compared among various identity statures. The identity achievement (A), foreclosure (F), and achievement-foreclosure intermediate (A-F) statuses composed a homogeneous high mean dimension score subset; the moratorium (M) and diffusion-moratorium intermediate (D-M) statuses composed a homogeneous medium mean score subset; and the identity diffusion (D) status composed a low mean score subset, with identity dimension scores differing significantly among the subsets. The results suggested the validity and significance of the identity status approach.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which verbal instruction on rehearsal strategy could specify subject's rehearsal activity. The subjects were divided into three groups: AR group was instructed to rehearse the materials associatively, and RoR group simply repeated them, and FR group studied them freely. They performed the immediate and final free recall tasks, and then they were required to answer a questionnaire on rehearsal substrategies. For primacy items the AR group performed better than the other groups in the immediate test. In the final test, there was no difference between the performances of AR and FR groups, and RoR group recalled with lowest probability. These results were discussed in relation to the frequency of use for each substrategy.
Studies on the neural bases of visual information processing were reviewed by tracing connections from the retina to the prefrontal cortex in the monkey; i.e., retina-lateral geniculate body (LGB) -striate cortex-prestriate cortex-inferotemporal (IT) cortex or posterior parietal (PP) cortex-prefrontal cortex. The retinotopy exists up to the level of prestriate cortex, but it is lost in the IT or PP cortex. A general tendency is observed that the later is the stage of information processing, the longer is the latency of cell activity changes, the larger is the size of receptive field, and more complex become trigger features. Small spot stimuli activate retinal ganglion cells or LGB cells while bars or edges with proper orientation are trigger stimuli for striate and some prestriate cells. In restricted prestriate areas, cells which are selective to color or movement are observed. IT cells are activated by complex pattern stimuli, while PP cells are selective to spatial aspects of the stimulus. Some prefrontal cells encode the meaning of the stimulus independent, of its physical properties.