The purpose is to explore the mentality differences between the delinquents and non-delinquents by sixty-item questionnaire. Subjects were 41 delinquents in the reformatory and 86 high school boys. In the first analysis, principal factar and geomax rotation were applied to these items, which yielded sociability, self-esteem, and will-power factors. ANOVA of scores on these three factors classified two groups well. In the second analysis, oblique geomax rotation as applied to the two groups separately. The data of delinquents yielded five factors, characterized by problem behavior and timidness, while the data of non-delinquents yielded three factors. The similarity of structure between the two was low, when the best matching solutions were considered as criteria.
After reviewing the history of factor analytic study of the work-curve in the Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic (UK) test, the possibility of evaluating the association between the factors extracted for the work-curve was assessed from the stand point of procrustean factor analysis, and the factors revealed by Kashiwagi et al. (1984) extracted. Both principal component and orthogonal complete procrustean analyses were applied to the data matrix of the UK test scores and personality inventory scores. The second, the third, and the fourth factors of the work curve were interpreted as (A) primacy, (B) variability, and (C) recency effects of addition work, respectively. The existence of the factors have been already suggested in Kashiwagi et al. (1984) on personality inventory.
To examine effects of self-disclosure intimacy and desirability on interpersonal attraction, 48 female subjects were presented with a scene of conversation between two women over VTR, in which the level of intimacy and desirability of disclosure was manipulated independently. Then, they were asked to rate the attractiveness of the discloser from the point of view of the listener. Both disclosure dimensions had positive effects on interpersonal attraction. Also, the dimensions of disclosure had differential effects on attraction: The discloser who provided desirable information about herself was more highly evaluated in the “affiliation” dimension than one who provided undesirable one, while, the discloser who provided intimate aspects of herself was more highly evaluated in the “nurturance” dimension than one who disclosed superficial aspects.
An experiment was conducted to elucidate the processes producing the spacing effect in free recall. Five conditions were designed to have systematically different test-time availabilities of input-time local contexts which would play dominant roles at retrieval processes. The availabilities were manipulated through environmental contexts, such as date, place, experimenter, apparatus, and subsidiary counting task. Group IM was tested immediately after input session of list learning and the subsidiary task. The other groups were tested on the next day of the input session under the same environment with the task (Group CB), under the same environment without the task (Group NC), under the same place and experimenter (Group SP), under different place and experimenter (Group VC). Magnitudes of the spacing effect decreased with decreasing the compatibilities of the environmental contexts, finally under the Group VC no effects was obtained. The present results indicate that the spacing effect is produced by the retrieval processes which depend on associations between items and the local contexts and/or on those between items and the environmental contexts.
To examine effect of prior stereotypical expectancy on social judgment from a Bayesian perspective, undergraduate subjects (N=204) were asked to infer a target person's attitude toward an atomic power problem. Half of them were told in advance that he was a member of Liberal Democratic Party (pro-expectancy condition), and the other half were told that he was a member of Japanese Socialist Party (con-expectancy condition). Then subjects were given a series of his previous relevant utterances, which had either high or low diagnostic values for the inference of his attitude. (a) “Labeling effect” occurred. That is, despite being given identical utterances, subjects given L. D. P. label estimated the target's attitude to be more favorable toward the atomic power than subjects given J. S. P. label. (b) This effect emerged mainly when subjects were given low diagnostic utterances. (c) Subjects given high diagnostic utterances inadequately underused the base-rate information (prior expectancy) compared with the Bayesian normative value. (d) Utterances congruent with prior expectancy were better recalled than utterances incongruent with prior expectancy.
Effects of learning experiences on the direction of shifts occurred in the functional asymmetry of the hemispheres were examined with unfamiliar stimuli. Hangul scripts were presented to 32 right handed university students who had no previous knowledge about Hangul. In the test session 1, the subjects were asked to discriminate the Hangul scripts tachistoscopically presented as fast and accurately as possible, and the left visual field advantage was obtained. The subjects were then assigned into following four groups with different conditions; (1) to teach nothing, (2) to teach the pronunciations of scripts, (3) to teach the meanings of scripts, (4) to teach both the pronunciations and the meanings of scripts. Then, the same discrimination task as that of the test session 1 was repeatedly given as the test session 2. No visual field differences was shown in the pronunciation teaching group, while the left visual field advantage was shown in other three groups. Possible mechanism as for the effects of learning experiences in relation to the hemispheric specialization were discussed.
This study attempted to construct a scale measuring encounter group members' perceptions of facilitator behavior and their reactions to the group facilitator. The items were gathered from the descriptions in an open ended questionnaire administered to 296 participants in encounter group sessions. Items were selected and categorized according to the hypothesized importance in encounter group process in the previous discussions on group facilitator. The content validity of the questionnaire was examined by four encounter group researchers. The questionnaire was then administered to 102 participants of nine encounter groups. Factor analysis was performed and four factors for facilitator behavior (i.e., facilitation of interaction, frankness in self-expression, domination for member and attitude of active listening), and two factors for members' reactions to facilitator (i.e., positive feeling and dissatisfaction caused by dependency) were identified. It was concluded that this scale was valid and could be used to examine the relationships between the facilitator and the members in encounter group settings.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relations between subjects' own attitudes toward nuclear power issues and their perception of attitudes held by others toward the same object. Data collected from an N of 474 subjects, both male and female, students and their relatives, were analyzed by using a causal inference model. The results showed that (1) there is a significant correlation between the subjects' attitudes and the perceived attitudes of others, and (2) the former tend to affect the latter. Evidence was also found that ego-centric biases tend to influence social perception. Finally, it was discussed whether or not it is possible to predict the direction of mass opinion change by using a distributive pattern matrix.
Subjects looked at 8mm motion pictures of the bodily movement from rear view perspective of male and female communicators, who faced to emotionally-toned scenes. If the subjects detected some sign of emotional expression, they rated the relevance of expression on five point scale. Varimax rotated factor analysis yielded three factors: F1 rejection-acceptance, F2 avoidance-approach, and F3 sadness. Rejection was categorized as expressions of anger, disgust, and contempt, while anger was categorized when a clenched fist with forward and extended arm were observed. Disgust and contempt were categorized when stationary posture was observed. Acceptance was categorized when the signs of affection, anticipation, and acceptance were observed. Avoidance was categorized when signs of fear and surprize were observed. A typical fear was categorized when signs of freezing was observed, surprize was categorized by stepping back, and sadness was categorized by crouching and self attachment.