Sixty subjects were asked to evaluate the degree of similarity among 15 binary-event-sequences which were generated through the Bernoulli process. The averaged similarity matrix of 50 subjects (ten omitted) was analysed by the Hayashi's Quantification Method IV, and the dimensions yielded were compared with the theoretically derived dimensions for the operational interpretation. The result showed that the run structure-the number of runs and the length of the longest run-and the number of one event in a sequence were the important attributes in cognition of binary-event-sequences. These attributes were most frequently employed by subjects, although other attributes and their combinations may be relevant. It was pointed out that the general tendency of judgments, i.e., dependence on the spatial and visual aspects of given sequences, proved subjects' inattention to the characteristics of the probabilistic generation process of sequences.
The purpose of the present experiments was to compare the validity of the associative or “state dependent learning” hypothesis and the nonassociative ones, which had been proposed to explain the Kamin effect. In Experiment 1, rats were given one-trial passive avoidance trial with one of the three shock intensities (0.5-, 1.0- and 2.0-mA), and then the retention test was given after either one of the intervals of 0.05-, 2.5- and 24-hr. The clear Kamin effect (U-shaped retention function) was obtained for the animals treated with the 2.0-mA shock. In Experiment 2, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was injected two hours before the retention test to investigate the involvement of adreno-pituitary system in the retrieval of the memory. The retention performances at the intermediate (2.5-hr) interval were reinstated, whereas those at the 24-hr interval were impaired, as a function of dosage of ACTH. The results of these experiments favored the associative or state-dependent learning hypothesis on the Kamin effect.
While much leadership research assumes that leader behavior affects group performance, this paper argues for the reverse causality. Effects of leader saliency and group performance on followers' ratings on leader behavior (initiating structure and consideration) were examined in 242 male workers engaged in railway traffic. As a measure of leader saliency, Kerr and Jermier (1978)'s substitutes for leadership scale (reward, spatial contact, and guidance) were applied. Followers' ratings on initiating structure and consideration were significantly higher for those who evaluated leader saliency as high. Similarly, each leader behavior was rated higher by subjects with higher group performance. With the causal relations revealed by previous experimental studies, it was concluded that followers' perception of leadership behaviors might reflect the level of group performance and leader saliency rather than the leader's objective behavior itself. The implications of these findings for future research and leadership training were discussed.
The factor transformation problem in inter-battery factor analysis is not limited to ordinary factor rotation. In this paper, four methods of transfomation in inter-battery factor analysis are proposed. The first one is a solution of Gibson's (1960) proposal and may be applied to obtain factor loadings for the trasformation toward simple structure. The second one is a kind of Procrustes rotation in inter-battery factor analysis. These solutions are obtained by numerical methods. The third and the fourth ones consist of scale transformation of factor loadings and may be applied to cases where orthogonality of factor loadings are desirable to a definite interpretation (e.g. as a profile score which is independent of general ability). The tranceformed values of the third and fourth methods are obtained as the numerical solutions of quartic equations.
The relationship between maintenance of territory (specified seating area) in seat-taking and members' status in a small group was investigated by means of observing a faculty meeting of a college from April '81 to March '83. In this period an addition of six new members with a net increment of two low status members demanded the redistribution of the space and the shift of the seating place of each member. Data obtained for 15 meetings held under the same chairman in the same meeting room were analyzed. The results verified the working hypotheses on dominant territorial maintenance by high status members: upper areas were customarily occupied by high status members who were fewer in number, and more territorial stability was seen among high status senior members. In addition, members of related specialities sat on the same (window vs. entrance) sides.
Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) developed by Home & Östberg (1976) was translated into Japanese, and then, MEQ and Life Habits Inventory were administered to approximately 1500 university students. The distribution of MEQ scores was essentially normal, and the reliability of this questionnaire was high (γα=.702). Comparing among the morning, evening, and intermediate types, it was found that the morning type retired and arose significantly earlier than other types, although there was no significant differences in sleep length. Furthermore, there were significant differences between the morning and evening types in sleep latency, mood on arising, adequate amount of sleep, frequency and duration of nap, and number of staying awake all night per month. These results suggested that the evening type had more irregular sleep-waking habits than the morning type. Since the above results were obtained only from student population, further investigation on various populations is requested.
A questionnaire survey was carried out among people living in a same river basin to examine determinants of anxiety about a flood and flood-coping practices. The results indicated that flood experience and objective danger in the environment play an important role in determining flood anxiety, while flood experience and place identity are deeply related to the coping practices. This implies that the factor structures are slightly different between occurrence of anxiety about a flood and adoption of the coping strategies. It is suggested facilitating flood-coping practices is possible even if the anxiety is not purposely strengthened among people.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of spatial attributes of stimuli upon the estimation of duration time. Using magnitude estimation method, three tasks were imposed on seven undergraduate students. C (control) task was to estimate the duration of a static small circle, MF (moving-free) task was that of a moving pattern of randomly located luminous spots, both with free regard, and MX (moving-fixed) task was that of the small circle superimposed on the moving pattern, with focused attention. In the MF task, there was found a velocity effect, i.e. the higher the velocity was, the larger was the estimated duration. In the MX task, the velocity effect was also found but in a small amount. The estimated durations in the C task were larger than those for the lowest velocity conditions in the other two tasks. These results were discussed in terms of two hypothetical cognitive processing systems in prospective time estimation.
The traffic system has a multi-layered hierarchical structure. Traffic accidents are a phenomena on the man-machine system located at the middle level of the hierarchy. Focusing on this holon (man-machine system), safety problems are reviewed in relation with the upper and lower systems interacting with this holon.