The purpose of this study was to examine how the group members perceive the probability of attaining the group goal and the level of group achievement by using feedforward and feedback information. The work of each member was to add one to four to the given random numbers and the total performance was regarded as a measure of group performance. Subjects were fifth grade boys. In one situation of the experiment, members were required set a group goal and afterwards were given information upon group performance, but in the other situation, they had to set a group goal but were not given information upon group performance. As the experimental tasks, a maximizing and an optimizing task were used. The weights of some operators in the block diagram of the system were estimated by input and output data. Results showed that feedforward and feedback information were utilized to perceive the probability of attaining the group goal and the level of group achievement.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the process of category judgement for each case belonging to ill-defined categories. After impression formation tasks were carried out by presenting 10 cases that were generated from combination of two personality traits, 40 university students were instructed to rate typicality of old and new cases. Experiment I (situation of case remembering) showed that (1) each stimulus dimension was additively integrated, (2) memory information concerning categories seemed to be the information about how each trait was weighted in integrating stimulus dimensions, rather than prototype or exemplar information, (3) the degree of membership for new cases was able to be inferred from this weighted information. However, experiment II (situation of case perception) suggested that the explanatory power of this category judgement model is not limitless but dependent on task demand. These results were discussed according to Nosofsky (1984) and Reed (1972).
Public self-consciousness involves two contrasting attitudes toward self-presentation-exhibitionism and shyness. The purpose of this study was to explore the distinctive motivational states which mediate these two attitudes. This paper consists of two researches. 395 undergraduates (207 males, 188 females) participated in the former study and 452 undergraduates (288 males, 164 females) participated in the latter one. The first study employed a factor analytic technique and results pointed to the existence of the following two motivational states-(1) acquiring praise and (2) avoiding rejection-both of which were positively correlated with public self-consciousness. “Acquiring praise” was also found to be related to exhibitionism but “avoiding rejection” was not. The later was found to be related to shyness. The second study revealed that both motivational states were related to a tendency to seek out and value the experience of participating in a social group. The implications of these findings for theories of self-consciousness and self-presentation were discussed.
This study examined (1) the applicability of Weiner (1979)'s model of causal attributions to explain causes of loneliness, a domain of affiliational behavior, (2) attributional styles of lonely persons about themselves and about others, and (3) the effect of the antecedent attribution. Three hundred and twenty-four male students were given the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and asked to rate the causes of their own loneliness and the loneliness of others. The main results obtained here were as follows: 1) For each self- and others-rating, the factor analysis on sixteen causal items found four factors which corresponded with four elements that were obtained by internality and stability dimensions. 2) Lonely persons made less internal and stable attributions about themselves, and made more internal and stable attributions about others than non-lonely persons. 3) In the cases with the antecedent attribution, lonely persons made more internal and stable attributions about themselves, and made more external and stable attributions about others. Non-lonely persons made much more external and stable attributions about themselves.
Effects of cognitive effort on recall of target words were examined by four experiments using undergraduates as subjects. In all experiments anagram solving tasks were used, where the task difficulty levels were manipulated in order to vary the amount of effort. In Experiment I-A, 15 subjects generated meaningful words from the presented anagrams. In Experiment I-B, targets were presented at the beginning of each trial, and 15 subjects were asked to judge whether they could construct target words from scrambled letters. Procedures for Experiment II were similar to those for experiment I-A, except that anagram stimuli themselves had meanings. Fifteen subjects were asked to generate words with different meanings from anagram. Results of Experiment I and II suggested that the more is the cognitive effort required for the anagram solving, the greater becomes the retention of items when they were recognized as a unit before the task. Experiment III, in which solution time was limited to 10 seconds, demonstrated that effort effects cannot be attributable to processing times. Factors underlying the effects of cognitive effort on word recall were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the mental process of integrating two premises in solving three-term series problem. The comparative pair used in this experiment was “larger-smaller”. The premises were presented in three ways: linguistic mode-for example “A is larger than B”, signal mode- “A>B”, and physical mode, in which the size of presented stimulus differed one another. The task was to decide whether three terms were ordered in one way or not. Six alternative models of the processes were tested by each subject: a grammatical linguistic model (GRL), a propositional linguistic model (PRL), a directional linguistic model (DIL), a grammatical linguistic-image mixed model (GRI), a propositional linguistic-image mixed model (PRI) and a directional image model (DII). Parameters of these models were figured out on the base of the different mental representations used in solving. The results said that six strategies were practically used by subjects and that each subject sometimes changed his strategy when the mode was changed.
The ability to identify spatially tactile point stimuli was examined, under simultaneous or sequential presentation, using a 3×3 matrix of vibrotactile stimulators placed against the abdomen. The first experiment showed that the performance of tactile point identification deteriorated with the increase of the number of tactile point stimuli, especially under the simultaneous presentation. The obtained memory span was about two stimulus positions in the simultaneous presentation and about 4.5 in the sequential presentation. In the second experiment, a tactile version of the Hogben-Di Lollo paradigm (1974) was employed to investigate processing rate of tactile point identification. The ability in identifying the missing tactile stimulus position was found to be an increasing function of SOA, reaching asymptote at about 600 ms SOA. A subsidiary task of counting backwards by threes made performance poorer. The analysis of errors indicated the existence of a short-term tactile memory.
One hundred and eight high school students served as subjects in a numerical progression task used to investigate the effect on performance of the relationship between expectancy and evaluative feedback. In accordance with measures of general or specific expectancy, they were randomly assigned to the positive, negative or non-feedback conditions. Correct scores on the task, perception of performance and confidence ratings given by subjects were examined. The main findings were as follows: (1) there was a strong relationship between specific expectancy and performance; (2) subjects with intermediate expectancy outperformed those whose expectancies were high or low; (3) expectancy level influenced the confidence ratings given by subjects. Overall, the results suggested that a subject's perceived competence on the task mediated the relationship between specific expectancy and actual performance.
For use in experiments investigating semantic processing of nonverbal materials, 82 drawings of familiar objects are presented, along with their most common names, the mean ratings of image agreement, adequacy of complexity, and familiarity. Most concepts were exemplars from one of 10 familiar categories (animals, insects, vehicles etc.). Names and ratings were obtained from 81 undergraduates and graduate students. The moderate correlation (r=.40) was found between percentage of the most common name and image-agreement rating, but the other correlations were negligible. The mean ratings of three variables except adequacy of complexity were compared with those of Matsukawa (1983), obtained from Japanese subjects using Snodgrass and Vanderwart's (1980) drawings. The high correlation between familiarity of both studies (r=.88) indicates that this variable is not affected by visual characteristics of the particular stimulus set. The possible uses of the present stimulus set were suggested.
This study was designed to investigate whether or not the areas of the human body most sensitive to itch stimuli are identical with the body parts least sensitive to tactual discrimination, a hypothesis which arouse from our previous studies of itching. Subjects were 12 college students (six males and six females). The itching was induced by grated Japanese yam. The body areas were the upper arm (with large two-point thresholds), the lower leg (with intermediate two-point thresholds), and the middle finger (with small two-point thresholds). An experimental session consisted of a stimulus-application period (200 s), and a post-application period (600 s) during which the itching increases markedly. (After wiping off the grated yam, itching is increased because of the needle-crystals of calcium oxalate contained in the yam peel which penetrate slightly into the skin in the process of wiping.) Self-ratings on itching and the volume of dermal blood flow were recorded during two periods. The results support our hypothesis and suggest that tactile sensation has some interaction with itching.