Why is the High-Performance and High-Maintenance type leadership most effective? According to PM theory, type-P behavior becomes more effective when affected by type-M behavior. In this paper, this hypothesis was tested in 2×3 design [(M, m)× (P-0, 2, 24times)] with 90 female subjects. The result indicated that type-M behavior made type-P behavior more effective both in the number of tappings and the percent correct detection of the target, and the interaction effect in the tapping task was more distinct for the subjects with high achivement motive. And it was suggested that the subject's perception of type-P behavior as the social power was changed from legitimate and coercive to expert type under the influence of type-M behavior.
The relationship of speech rate and hand gesture to attitude change and impression formation was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, persuasive communication was presented to 62 subjects by a tape recorder. The results indicated that slow speech was more persuasive and slow speaker was perceived less active, more reliable and more calm. In the second experiment, same persuasive communication was presented to 162 subjects by a videotape recorder. Manipulations of speech rate were crossed with hand gesture in the second experiment. The results suggested that fast speaker was judged more active. Hand gesture had no main effects on persuasion. But significant interaction between speech rate and hand gesture indicated that slow speech with hand gesture was perceived more intelligent and more confident.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the characteristics of feelings and attitudes toward motherhood and maternal role among Japanese mothers. In the first study, it was found that the mothers who have absorbed only in child-rearing, tend to have negative feelings toward motherhood. Based on this result, in the second study, a questionnaire was administered to 291 random sampled women ranging from 18 years to 44 years in the Tokyo area. The findings are as follows: (1) mothers who have their first-born child aging three to six or above 13 showed high negative feelings. This suggests that the mothers' negative feelings are higher when their children are at a rebellious age, (2) mothers who scored high in the negative feelings and low in the positive feelings tended to have low self-esteem and to lack daily-life satisfaction.
Ninety college students were asked to place themselves in the role of a hypothetical help recipient and to answer a series of questions regarding their reactions to the help. Recipients of voluntary help were more glad and rated the donor more positively, but felt less obligation to reciprocate the donor than those of compulsory help. With regard to the type of outcomes, successful helping produced stronger feeling of obligation to reciprocate the donor and greater liking for the donor. In addition, recipients of high cost help felt more depressive and more obligated to reciprocate the donor than recipients of low cost help. These results suggest that activation of the compensatory norm facilitates reciprocation.
Three experiments were conducted to replicate and extend Helmholtz's observation indicating vergence hysteresis. The two stimuli were presented dichoptically to the eyes in the mirror stereoscope and moved temporalward or nasalward. Helmholtz's finding was confirmed in Experiment 1, in which the critical separations were measured for the stimuli divergently moving temporalward when fusion of their images was abruptly broken (breakaway point) and when fusion was re-established (refusion point) for the stimuli moving nasalward. In Experiment 2, in which only the stimulus for one eye moved temporalward while the stimulus for the other eye was stationary, the breakaway point of the moving stimulus was found to be linearly dependent on the position of the stationary stimulus. Experiment 3 showed that, in the asymmetric divergent tracking as in Experiment 2, the change of the perceived visual direction of the fused image was smaller than the angular magnitude of the movement of the tracking eye. These results were discussed as evidence indicating the sensory and motor connection of the two eyes.
Using subjects whose initial attitude was in line with the position presented in the persuasive message, a 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted with the amount of threat to their attitudinal freedom (high or low) and the degree of the their need for uniqueness (high or low) as the independent variables. The subjects who were in the high threat condition displayed greater psychological reactance and reactance responses (resistance to persuasion) than those in the low threat condition, and the reactance effects were greater among the subjects of high uniqueness. Discussed in terms of psychological reactance theory, these findings suggest that the recipient's need for uniqueness is an important variable in resistance to persuasion.
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects simply listened to sequences of consonant-vowel (CV) syllables. Each sequence was presented in random order and consisted of two kinds of CV syllables-90% (‘frequent’) and 10% (‘rare deviant’), respectively. The features separating these two syllables were varied in phoneme (consonant and/or vowel) or intensity in different runs. In all eight conditions, a fronto-centrally dominant, negative wave peaking around 200 ms (N2) was observed for the deviants. The shorter latency N2 was found for the separating features of vowels or intensities but not for consonants. The results were interpreted as showing that N2 reflects a covert orienting response to rare deviants and that its latency can serve as an index for identifying the separating feature. Observation of N2 in the task-free situation suggested that it might be a useful tool for assessing linguistic discriminability in a clinical setting.
Sixty individuals (30 male/30 female) served as subjects in an experiment designed to investigate a person's felt emotions while engaged in social interactions with other people. The social interaction situations explored here represented various combinations of the following three variables: (1) eight kinds of sentiments about the other person; (2) eight kinds of social behavior directed to the other person; (3) sex of the other person. Subjects' responses to questioning revealed that a person's emotional reaction is heavily dependent upon the interpersonal sentiments pertaining in a given situation. Very different emotional reactions were associated with differences in interpersonal sentiments even when the pattern of social behavior remained constant. It was also found that emotional reactions changed when different patterns of social behavior were employed with a given individual.
Forty-nine middle managerial personnel in a local government office near Tokyo provided data with respect to the moderating effects of satisfaction variables on the relationship between role stress (including role conflict, role ambiguity and role overload) and fatigue. Using the moderated regression technique for data analysis, it was found that the relationships between both role conflict and ambiguity and fatigue were moderated by the managers' satisfaction with the job, itself. Even those who experienced role overload did not report fatigue or dissatisfaction. Implications of these findings for future research, job management and avoidance of stress are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fear and embarrassment-inducing situations on affihiative preferences and choice behavior. Sixty male subjects were threatened with either the prospect of putting their finger into water, the prospect of electric shock, or the prospect of sucking on infantile oral objects. They ran individually but met another subject before engaging in the experiment. The major findings were: (a) embarrassment manipulation was effective on self-ratings but not on affihiative preferences and choice behavior (b) subjects who met with a familiar partner showed affihiative choice (c) among the subjects who met with an unfamiliar partner those in the first run chose to be alone, but those in the second showed affiliation. The results were discussed in terms of the needs for self-evaluation and for cognitive clarity.