The experiment of category judgments of horizontal line lengths was performed in three conditions of stimulus presentation sequence, in order to examine whether the sequential dependencies of this type might be explained with the attention band theory which Green & Luce (1974) proposed. Nine undergraduate students served the experiment as a subject, three for each condition. The multiple regression analyses presented that in all conditions the sequential dependencies extended over at least four trials, and the coefficient of variation of response ratio Rn/Rn-k(k=1-4) also showed the same results. Although Jesteadt, Luce, & Green (1977) stated that the attention band of loudness continued only one trial, the results of this experiment suggested that the attention band of horizontal line lengths continued four trials.
We have insisted that the difference in the reactions of mice to an electric shock may be one of the most important determinants of their performances shown in escape-avoidance situations. In Experiment 1, we trained four inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, C3H/He, C57BL/6, DBA/2 J) in two-way avoidance learning situation. C57BL mice showed the best performance and C3H did the worst, while DBA and BALB mice were in-between the two. Especially, we observed C57BL mice had a strong tendency to run to the shock, while C3H mice had a tendency to jump and/or rear. In Experiment 2, we made clear that these reactions to shocks of C57BL and C3H didn't change easily but persisted even if those were inappropriate to the situation. The results suggested that the performance of mice in an escape-avoidance situation was closely related to the characteristic reactions of mice shown to the shock, which differed from strain to strain.
Thirty-two colonies composed of one female and two male rats in each of the Tsukuba strains for high or low emotionality (THE or TLE) were formed and reared in wooden enclosures for about two months. During this period, intruder tests and intra-colony observations were conducted once a week, and several measures of social behaviors were obtained through VTR observations. A dominant male of each colony was identified based on its attacks on an intruder rat at the last two testings. In intruder tests, the dominant TLE males attacked intruders more severly than the ones in the THE. Although the subordinate TLE males also attacked intruders on a half level with dominants of the same strain, the subordinates of the THE scarcely attacked intruders. The strain×dominance interaction was found significant. During intra-colony observations, the subordinates of the THE exhibited significantly more abnormal homosexual behaviors than those of the TLE. On the other hand, the TLE males showed significantly more normal sexual behaviors than the THE males. These findings were discussed in terms of social context in their colonies.
The purpose of this study was to describe the configuration of auditory speech images, in which phonologically similar words are represented closely to one another. Experiment I was carried out with a set of 10 two-syllable-words, while experiment II was with a set of 12 such words as stimuli. In each experiment, 10 subjects were required to read aloud each pair of two-syllable-words and to rate the auditory similarity between the two items. The similarity responses were analyzed by ALSCAL, yielding three-dimensional configuration. The overall configuration revealed that the vowel of the last syllable was the most important, while the first sound of a word was not critical in judgment of similarity. However, the problems need further research, whether these results remain valid also for longer syllables, or influence of accents on such similarity.
Forty male college students participated in a study to clarify response patterns in a continuous word association task on the assumption that response pattern may be related to one's “complex” (Jung, 1973). Each subject was asked to produce 10 “response” words to each of 17 “stimulus” words, 10 of which were “complex related” (C-words), seven of which were “neutral” (N-words). These stimulus words were selected from the set of 100 words comprising the WAT pertaining to the “complex indicator” (Jung, 1973). The results were as follows: (1) emotionally positive and negative responses were given more frequently to C-words than to N-words; (2) subjects became more emotionally unstable to C-words than to N-words; (3) the word “man” was given more often as a response to C-words than to N-words and was often the first responsfe word givens Overall, it was revealed that the continuous word association task is a useful device for investigating associative response patterns, especially the objective characteristics of them.
The purpose is to examine the factor structures of situational events regarding loneliness in pubertal youth and their coping behaviors. A loneliness scale for use with youth was developed, and applied to 199 seventh grade children. Thirty items were for the assessment of situational events regarding loneliness, and 51 items were for the assessment of their coping behaviors to the loneliness. The major findings were as follows: Eight independent factors were extracted for situational events regarding loneliness, while 12 independent factors were extracted for the coping behaviors toward loneliness. Children with strong loneliness score showed tendency to coping with deviant behaviors. The reliability of the loneliness scale was discussed with respect to alpha coefficients, test-retest correlations, split-half method, and the GP analysis. Use of these tests gave ample evidence for the reliability of the scale.
Three experiments examined the competing effects of CS salience and pretraining upon stimulus selection in rats (Wistar strain) by measuring conditioned suppression of water licking. Rats were initially conditioned to a faint tone (stage 1), and then were shifted to conditioning to a salient light compounded with the tone (stage 2). At the final testing stage the two stimuli were presented separately without US. In Experiment I, the tone suppressed licking only incompletely at the end of the pretraining stage. The results of the test suggest that the presence of light through stage 2 reduced the amount of conditioning to the tone. The tone, on the other hand, did not block the learning to the light. Experiment II, in which the number of pretraining trials was increased to produce more suppression to the weak tone, showed the same results as those of Experiment I. In Experiment III, in which the intensity of light was reduced to the level that it could not overshadow the tone, the pretrained tone effectively blocked the conditioning to the light during compound conditioning. Possible explanations of these findings were discussed.
A compound stimulus consisting of tone and light was conditioned to an electric-shock US in two groups of rats. For the experimental group, the light stimulus had been paired with food prior to the compound conditioning. No such treatment was given to the control group. After the compound conditioning, the light and the tone were presented separately during Test Phase. An appetitively-motivated behavior (‘magazine’ behavior) and an aversively-motivated behavior (‘freezing’ behavior) during CS presentations were analyzed based on the videotape-recorded data. The main findings of the experimental group during Test Phase were as follows; (1) The light stimulus which had been conditioned to food was conditioned very little to the electric shock. (2) Rats showed ‘magazine’ behaviors during the light presentations even in Test Phase. (3) The ‘freezing’ behaviors were observed at a lower level than in the control rats during the presentation of the tone. These results were discussed in terms of reciprocal interactions of appetitive and aversive motivational systems.
The purpose of this experiment is to examine the relationship between structure of texts and selective recall and recognition. Subjects (90 female undergraduates) read texts of three different types: narratives, expository-descriptive texts, and expository-interference texts. After reading, subjects received recall test and recognition test one hour or one week after. Same three target statements were embedded in these texts. In the narrative condition, rate of correctly recalled propositions were higher than in the interference condition, and rate of recall for macro-propositions were higher than for micro-propositions, but recall and recognition of target statements were relatively poor in this condition, probably because narrative sentences were organized according to the macro-structure by story schema, but target statements were perceived as being irrelevant to the macro-structure of the narratives. In the expository-descriptive condition, rate of correctly recalled propositions were as high as narrative condition, and recall and recognition of target statements were significantly higher. It is interpreted that expository texts were well organized according to the macro-structure, and target statements were perceived as being relevant to the macro-structure.
Analysis of the results of the Y-G personality inventory, Cattell's 16 personality factors, Shimoda's personality inventory and the VERAC personality inventory revealed seven factors in each of two subject groups consisting of 476 male and 322 female undergraduate students. The data were analyzed by principal component analysis and rotated by the oblique varimax method. The seven factors were designated as follows: (1) cyclothymic personality - extravert; (2) depressive - nervous personality; (3) immodithymic personality; (4) schizothymic personality - affected by feelings; (5) hysteric personality; (6) autistic - hyper-sensitive personality; (7) non-cooperative, epileptic personality. On the whole, these factors corresponded with Kretschmer's three basic temperament types. Factors 1 and 3 were cyclothymic temperament, factors 4 and 6 were schizothymic temperament and factor 7 was collathymic temperament (epileptic personality). Factor 5 (hysteric personality) did not directly correspond with Kretschmer's basic types and has recently been regarded as a part of the epileptic personality in psychopathological studies. It was concluded, therefore, that factors 5 and 7 could be regarded as corresponding to a personality type designated as collathymic temperament.