Psychological distance between self and others was assumed, semiologically, to be experienced in four aspects (active representation, active presentation, passive representation and passive presentation) which can assume different values from one another. It was further assumed that there is a behavioral tendency to reduce differences among these aspects by means of two types of behavioral principle: egoistic and contextual. With acquaintanceship classified into four levels (total acquaintance, peripheral acquaintance, known stranger including familiar stranger, and total stranger) in terms of psychological distance and behavioral norms, it was hypothesized that the ‘other’ person who embarrasses us most is an acquaintance by norm but a stranger psychically. The results of questionnaire surveys supported this hypothesis and confirmed that it is difficult to treat the peripheral acquaintance as an acquaintance.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of status change on the powerholder's behavior and cognition (attribution) to their sub-leaders and subordinates. The experimental situations consisted of multistage power structures: one powerholder, four sub-leaders, and 16 subordinates. Instead of being delegated by the experimenter (as in experiment I), the subjects in experiment II were screened and elected as a powerholder. The results of experiment I and experiment II showed that; (1) The powerholders under status change condition attempted more to influence the high performing group (experiment I, II), (2) They highly evaluated their own contributions to the high performing group (experiment I, II), (3) They exercised more coercive power to the high performing group (experiment II), and (4) They gave more difficult tasks to the high performing group (experiment II) than the powerholders under non status change condition.
Three experiments on mental rotation were carried out to investigate conditions under which hand images are operated kinesthetically. In Experiment 1a, either a left or right hand was presented in a photographic slide, and subjects' task was left-right identification. In Exp. 2, each slide consisted of two hands, identical hands or mirror-imaged hands, and same-different judgment was required. In Exp. 3, two hands were presented successively, requiring same-different (mirror-reversed) judgment. On the other hand, subjects in Exp. 1b were asked to rate physical difficulty of actual hand movements to imitate stimuli. Six to 12 undergraduate students served as subjects in each experiment. The results suggested that subjects' mental operations of hand images were kinesthetic in Exp. 1a but visual in Exp. 2 and 3, on the basis of comparison between reaction times in the three experiments and the ratings in Exp. 1b. Conditions which give rise to kinesthetic image processes were argued in relation with task structures.
This study was conducted to investigate how two different conditions of processing a prime would affect the lexical decision time of a target. One condition was called the conscious condition, where a prime was presented for 250ms and a subject was instructed to expect any target from that prime. Another condition was the unconscious condition, where a prime was briefly exposed and followed by a pattern mask so that a subject could not identify it. The effect of an associative strength of prime-target relatedness was also investigated. The associative strength of prime-target relatedness in the related condition was relatively weak in Exp. I, and strong in Exp. II. In the conscious condition, facilitation and inhibition were found both in Exp. I and in Exp. II. On the other hand, in the unconscious condition, only inhibition was found in Exp. I, but only facilitation in Exp. II. These results suggest that automatic activation and attention system were both needed to account for priming effect.
Two experiments were designed to examine the relationship between elaboration and to-be-elaborated items in paired-associate learning. In the first task of both experiments, 20 subjects were presented with a sequence of 32 noun words to be elaborated, and instructed either to generate sentences or to produce associates. In second task, the subjects were asked to remember pairs of words either incidentally (Exp. I) or intentionally (Exp. II). The first word of the pairs, referred to as the context word, was used later as a cue for cued recall, while the second word, as the target word, was to be recalled. Three different types of pairs were constructed: (i) C pairs, in which the context word was elaborated and the target word was not, (ii) T pairs, in which the target word was elaborated and the context word was not, and (iii) CT pairs, in which both words were elaborated. Subjects who generated sentences remembered the items better than subjects who produced associations. Both T and CT pairs were more recalled than C. pairs, while there was no difference in recall between T and CT pairs. The results suggest that the type of to-be-elaborated items is an important factor in elaborative process.
This study examined the relation between prototype abstraction and exemplar retention by using memory of melodies. Acquisition lists of melodies were constructed by applying a set of transformation rules to a fixed prototype melody (cf. Welker, 1982). Immediately after the presentation of acquisition list, recognition task was performed. The recognition rating for prototype was used as the indicator of the prototype abstraction. The discriminability of old melodies from new melodies (d') was used as the indicator of exemplar retention. In Exp. 1 with 30 undergraduates as subjects, the transformational distance of acquisition list was varied and it was demonstrated that as the transformational distance decreased, prototype abstraction was facilitated but exemplar retention was not changed. In Exp. 2 with 90 undergraduates as subjects, the number of presentation of each melody and the kinds of melodies in acquisition list were varied. Results demonstrated that as the number of presentation of each melody increased and also as the kinds of melodies decreased, the exemplar retention improved but prototype abstraction was not changed. It was argued that the systems underlying the prototype abstraction and exemplar retention were functionally independent of each other.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of self-evaluative responses with feedback in a nonsense syllable recognition task (Experiment I) and a concept learning task (Experiment II). Subjects were 143 fifth graders who were first asked to identify each item in the task before being exposed to the experimental procedures. Following the actual learning trials, all subjects were given the post-test. The experimental procedures were as follows: (a) SF-in the process of identification, subjects evaluated their answers and feedback was provided on their evaluations. (b) EF-in the process of identification, subjects were given feedback on their answers. (c) NF-subjects evaluated their answers but no feedback was provided. (d) PF-EF and NF procedures alternated from trial to trial. In both experiments, SF and EF groups learned more effectively than NF and PF groups. In contrast to experiment I, many subjects in SF group were successful in the concept learning task. These results suggested that self-evaluative responses with feedback had positive effects on learning, especially on concept learning.
The purpose of this study was to investigate preschool and grade-school children's effort judgments of fictional figures in children's story under two conditions. In one condition, the information of performance outcomes of fictional figures was given. And in the other condition, the information of performance outcomes plus ability of fictional figures was given. In the outcome information condition, younger children's (preschool and second-grade children) effort judgments were the same as elder children's (fourth- and sixth-grade children) ones. Both younger and elder children judged the effort in success to be higher than that in failure. In the outcome plus ability information condition, however, younger children's effort judgments differed from elder children's ones. Elder children judged the high-ability figure's effort to be lower than the low-ability figure's one, while younger children's effort judgments of the high-ability and the low-ability figures were the same.
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of psychological stress upon attention as subjects performed on the MFF test. Thirty-four undergraduate students served as subjects. They participated in two experimental conditions: “stress condition” and non-stress condition. Main sources of stress were competitive instruction and anxiety caused by unfamiliar experimental setting. Heart rate and state anxiety were measured as the indices of those stressors. Their performance on the MFF test was measured in terms of reaction time and the number of correct responeses in each condition. The main results were as follows. Reaction time in stress condition was found significantly shorter than that in non-stress condition. However, there was no significant difference in the number of correct responses between these two conditions. Besides, there was no linear relationship found between either heart rate or state anxiety scores and MFF test performance. These results suggest that attention measured by MFF test differs in its reaction time, depending upon whether stressful instruction exists or not, but it holds constancy in its correct responses throughout the experiment.
A visual stimulus display system controlled by a microcomputer was constructed at low cost. The system consists of a LED stimulus display device, a microcomputer, two interface boards, a pointing device (a “mouse”) and two kinds of software. The first software package is written in BASIC. Its functions are: 1) to construct stimulus patterns using the mouse, 2) to construct letter patterns (alphabet, digit, symbols and Japanese letters-kanji, hiragana, katakana), 3) to modify the patterns, 4) to store the patterns on a floppy disc, 5) to translate the patterns into integer data which are used to display the patterns in the second software. The second software package, written in BASIC and machine language, controls display of a sequence of stimulus patterns in predetermined time schedules in visual experiments.