This study was undertaken to explore various fundamental characteristics of the cyclothymic personality type. The subjects were 474 students who were classified into three basic personality types -cyclothymic, schizothymic and collathymic- on the basis of their performance on the VERAC Personality Inventory (VPI). Analyses of two questionnaires (TSPS and Self-Differential) completed by the subjects indicated that students classified as cyclothymic had a stronger tendency to recognize their own personality type and to adjust images which could or might be recognized by others. To explore the cyclothymic personality in greater detail, this group was classified into two sub-types -hypomanic and immodithymic types- and two additional tests (EPPS and EFT) were administered to these subjects. Analysis of the responses to these tests revealed that (a) the differences between the two sub-types in EPPS coincided to some degree with earlier reports in the clinical literature, (b) there was no difference between the sub-types in terms of reaction time or number of errors in EFT, and (c) the differences obtained between EPPS and EFT were not so clear as those obtained among the three basic personality types. Overall, these results supported the contention that cyclothymic personality type is a viable sub-category in personality type theory.
Two questionnaires were administered to 125 male and 131 female senior high school students to investigate the influence of parental child-rearing attitudes on adolescent self-esteem. The results indicated that the influence of parental child-rearing attitudes on children's self-esteem depends on their sex. In males, only when the father strongly limited the autonomy of his son, the father's weak identification with his son was associated with the son's high self-esteem. In females, only when the mother identified with her daughter weakly, the mother's strong control was associated with the daughter's low self-esteem. These results were discussed from various points of view, such as the differences in functions and roles between the father and mother, and the psychological weaning that is a developmental task in adolescence.
Experiment 1 was conducted to assess effects of social support in relation to majority. Twenty female college students were given a time perceptual task for 30 trials in which the discrepancy between majority opinion and physical reality was small in one group and large in the other. The supporter responded correctly throughout. Conformity rate was 0% and 15% under large and small discrepancy conditions, respectively. Experiment 2 was conducted to assess internal influences in both discrepancy conditions. The supporter sometimes responded correctly and sometimes errorneously. Twenty-two female undergraduates were given the same task as in Experiment 1 and had their time perception measured before and after the task as a test of internal influences. Conformists in both discrepancy conditions changed toward majority opinion internally. Nonconformists under large discrepancy condition changed toward majority opinion, but nonconformists under small discrepancy condition changed toward the opposite direction internally. These results were discussed from the view of dissonance theory.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of situational frequency of words on false recognitions. Two-stage recognition model (Hall & Kozloff, 1970) assumes that subjects discriminate the critical stimulus (CS) and its associate (E) in terms of their situational frequency and the failure to discriminate between the two leads to the false recognition of E. The situational frequency of E is a function of the number of implicit associative responses (IAR) elicited by CSs. In the first experiment, 60 college students studied a list of familiar words that involved CSs followed by a recognition test. False recognitions of Es elicited by two or three CSs were more frequent than those by a CS presented two or three times. In the second experiment, 50 college students were asked to write down the CS which came to mind in recognition test. The pattern of false recognition occurrence when CS came to mind was the same as the above, but the frequency of such false recognitions was low. The results support the two-stage recognition model. Individual difference in IARs and the possibility that subjects utilized graphemic features as discriminative cues were discussed.
The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of memory load on a counting task from a developmental view of working memory system. Seventy-two children from second and fourth grades of elementary school were asked to count and memorize the number of dots in a series of random dot patterns, and at the end of the series, to report the memorized numbers. In two experiments, counting time and counting span were analyzed as measures of operational efficiency and memory capacity. Experimental variables were grade levels, degree of memory load, number of dots and inter-stimulus interval (ISI). For both graders, memory load decreased the counting efficiency and, in paticular, the younger graders were influenced by it even when the number of dots was small. For the olders, the shortening of IST (Exp. II) made their pattern of counting speed as a function of other experimental variables similar to that of the younger graders, while their counting span was uninfluenced by it. The implications of these results for the developmental trends of working memory were discussed.
The effects of approach by an unaquainted male to high- or low-neurotic (on the MPI scale) female subjects on physiological responses (heart rates and eye blinks) and self-rated affective/cognitive responses (tension, anxiety and apparent size of the male) were examined. (a) In the first trial, non-neurotic subjects showed an abrupt increase of HR near the personal space boundary, however showed a rapid habituation at the second and third trials. In contrast, self-rated affection (tension and anxiety) increased gradually as the male approached, and habituation was slow at the later trials. (b) Neurotic subjects displayed higher tension than non-neurotic subjects, while tension, anxiety and heart rate were less habituating. (c) INDSCAL analysis revealed that these three self-rated indices clustered together, while the physiological ones did not. (d) It was suggested that the eye blink response had a tension reducing function.
A Japanese version of the Sensation-Seeking Scale was developed based on Zuckerman's SSS Form IV. Items of Zuckerman's Form IV were translated into Japanese and were administered to Japanese undergraduates (458 males and 431 females). The results were factor-analysed to select items for the scales. Four factors were originally postulated, but the results were more easily interpretable when five factors were extracted, especially in the female sample. This fifth factor was regarding marihuana use and sexual behavior. In order to match the structure of the scales for both males and females, items highly loaded with this factor were eliminated and the results for the remaining items were again factor-analysed. Then the following four scales were constructed; Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (Dis), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). Items of TAS scale were highly consistent with Zuckerman's TAS items of Form V. But items of ES, Dis and BS scales were different from those of Zuckerman's and the scales turned out to be those uniquely constructed from Form IV. The test-retest reliabilities (test-retest interval was three months) of the total SSS were .87 and .73 in males and females, respectively. TAS, ES and Dis reliabilities were ranging from .74 to .86 for males, and .74 to .82 for females. However, males' and females' BS were less reliable (.54 and .48 respectively). Internal consistency reliabilities (KR-20) of the total SSS were .75 for males and .65 for females. TAS, ES and Dis reliabilities were ranging from .56 to .67 for males, and .47 to .61 for females. But the BS scale showed poor reliability (.29 for both males and females).
The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of self-reference, congruency between self-cognition in introvert-extrovert dimension and presented items related to the dimension, i.e., self-relevance, and self-involvement on the recall and recognition. Nine introvert-and 12 extrovert-self cognition subjects (ISC and ESC) were given a judgement task where they were required to judge 44 introvert and extrovert items in one of the three ways of processing: structural, semantic, and self-referent. Then they were given surprise tests of a free recall and recognition, followed by self cognition rating and desirability ratings of recognition test items. Main results were as follows: (1) self-referent processing was significantly higher in recall and recognition than semantic processing only in extrovert items, (2) ESC showed significantly higher recognition for extrovert than introvert items, although no such a differential recognition was detected in ISC. (3) High self-involved items were more confidently recognized, and also it was suggested that the recognition pattern of the second result above appeared especially in the high self-involved items. These results were discussed in terms of attention allocation and self-evaluation.
Priming effects on picture naming and categorizing were investigated. The target pictures were line drawings of common objects. After a prime (either a picture or a word), a target picture appeared and subjects (32 undergraduates) responded its name (naming task) or its category name (categorizing task) as quickly as possible. Four types of prime-target relation were: identical pairs (ID), related pairs (RE; both items belong to the same semantic category), unrelated pairs (UN), and no prime condition (NP). For naming task, facilitation was obtained in ID condition but not in RE condition. For categorizing task, approximately the same amount of facilitation was observed in both ID and RE conditions. The results indicate that picture priming effects are dependent upon the identification levels of target pictures and are discussed in terms of category identification models of picture processing.
This study was designed to identify factors which contribute to the acceptance of relaxation. Using the Dohsa Training technique, each of 58 female undergraduate students was given a relaxation procedure applied to the trunk and back. Following this relaxation procedure, subjects were asked to complete a 20 item questionnaire in which a five point rating scale served as an index of the degree of acceptance of relaxation. Factor analysis of the results led to identification of the following three factors: (I) psychological acceptance of the experimental situation; (II) differentiated and integrated bodily awareness; and, (III) feeling of generalized relaxation. A comparison of the factor scores of training and non training experienced subjects revealed higher scores for the former on Factors I and II. On the other hand, non-training experienced subjects scored higher on Factor III. In addition, the difference in factor scores between concentrated and non-concentrated subjects indicated that volitional concentration on the relaxation process is indispensable for reorganizing self body-image.