The purpose of this study was to represent the phonological space of Japanese phonemes by means of multidimensional scaling and to identify each dimension not only linguistically but also psychologically. Ten subjects (graduate or undergraduate students) were required to read aloud each pair of katakana (a certain type of Japanese phonemic letters), and to rate the auditory similarity between the two items. The similarity responses were analyzed by ALSCAL, and the 3-dimensional-configuration was interpreted mainly on the basis of the rating scores on 20 semantic differential scales. The results revealed that Dimension 1, which correlated with several SD scales, separated seion and dakuon contrastively. On the other hand, Dimension 2, which didn't have significant correlations with any pair-of-adjectives scales, divided bilabials from other sounds, suggesting that this particular articulation might have some psychological reality affecting the auditory images of speech sounds. Furthermore, Dimension 3, which was not amenable to simple phonetic interpretations, proved to be a dimension reflecting psychological factors such as activity and tension.
Subjects performed a task in pairs and received false feedback concerning their performance levels. The performance level of one subject (HS) was set twice as high as the other (LS). It was predicted that (1) when the total rewards to be distributed between the two are dependent upon the sum of their performance scores, HS's and LS's equity judgments would agree with each other, but (2) when the total rewards are predetermined and not dependent upon their performance scores, HS would think that he/she deserves more than half of the rewards while LS would think that he/she deserves about half of the rewards. It was further predicted that the compromise between the two concerning reward distribution would be easier when accepting the partner's claim still yields referentially fair rewards to the subject than not. These predictions were supported in an experiment using 144 subjects in 72 same-sex pairs.
The process of integrating two premises of three-term series problem was analyzed into five components. Reaction time (RT) to solution was supposed to be the sum of the components RT, and calculated parameters were supposed to estimate the duration of the components. The purpose of this study is to identify the parameters and to examine the semantic effect of comparatives. Two premises were presented successively, and the task was to decide whether three terms in the premises were linearly ordered or not. Eighteen male graduate and undergraduate students participated in both of two conditions, namely above-below and better-worse. Compared with better-worse condition, above-below condition suggests spatial relations. The meaning of the comparatives influenced the processing represented by “pivot search in the second premise” parameter and “end-anchor” parameter, and it was suggested that the former represented linguistic processing, while the latter presented spatial processing. The processing represented by these two parameters were consistent among subjects.
Self-disclosure patterns of adolescents were examined. Subjects (105 male and 159 female college students) were requested to complete the questionnaire on self-disclosure of 11 different aspects of self to four target-persons (father, mother, the best friend of same sex, the best friend of opposite sex). The following results were found. Both male and female showed the highest self-disclosure to the best friend of same sex, while the lowest to father. But sex differences were found in regard to both overall extent and pattern of self-disclosure. Female disclosed significantly more than male, especially to mother. Although male put the focus of self-disclosure on only the best friend of same sex, female put it on both the best friend of same sex and mother. Moreover, the subjects tend to vary the extent of self-disclosure with respect to the category to which each item about the self belonged. There was the interaction among sex, target-persons, and aspects of self.
Fifty six first born Japanese 12-month-old infants were observed in the Strange Situation and the relationship between affective responses in the preseparation episodes and patterns of attachment behaviors in the following episodes was examined. In the preseparation episodes, 18 infants were rated as displaying distress (HS) and 38 infants did not display distress (LS). HS infants were acutely distressed in the separation episodes, and did not easily recover from distress even after regaining close physical contact with mother in the reunion episodes. In contrast, LS infants did not show distress in the first separation and reunion episodes. Although they were distressed in the second separation, they recovered more easily than HS infants in the second reunion episode. Resistant behaviors in the second reunion were observed more frequently and were stronger in HS infants than LS infants, Eighty. three percent of B4 and C were HS infants and 84% of B were LS infants. These results indicated that the affective responses in the preseparation episodes could predict the patterns of attachment behaviors in the following episodes.
The purpose of this study is to find out if the personalities of siblings are similar or different. Subjects used were Doshisha University students and members of their families, provided those families had only two children. Altogether 29 pairs of boys and their younger brothers, 47 pairs of boys and their younger sisters, 44 pairs of girls and their younger brothers, and 51 pairs of girls and their younger sisters were given the MMPI individually. Sibling status effects were found in many of the MMPI scores according to the type of sibling dyads and birth order, especially for the sibling dyad of elder brother and younger sister. Personality relationships between the first and second child showed that there were significant correlations in many MMPI scales: L, K, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, Conflict resolution, Manifest anxiety, Repression-Sensitization, and Hostility. Among the four types of sibling dyad, the pairs of girls and their younger brothers showed the highest correlation in their personality.
Six undergraduate students were tested in a two choice situation, exposed to concurrent VI-VI schedules. For group 1-5, tokens earned by pressing the left button were exchanged for one yen, and tokens earned by pressing the right button were exchanged for five yen after the experiment. For group 3-2, tokens earned by pressing the left button were exchanged for three yen, and tokens earned by pressing the right button were exchanged for two yen. The results between log response ratio (time allocation ratio) and log reinforcement ratio were examined by linear regression analysis. The average value of the regression coefficient of group 1-5 was .795 (.832), and the average value of the groups intercept was -. 228 (-. 243). The average coefficient of group 3-2 was .524 (.590), and its average intercept was -. 033 (.021). The results of all subjects revealed undermatching. As for group 1-5, subjects preferred five yen about two times as often as one yen. In group 3-2, however, subjects didn't show a clear pattern of preference.
In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts including physical or psychological annoyance, the other person's disobedience, perceived injustice, and a threat to one's social identity. Whether one's aggression is performed or not depends on a number of intea- and inter-personal determinants, particularly on social cognitive processes such as attribution, inference, prediction and other judgements.