The present study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that children's feelings of uncertainty would mediate between pre-experience and rule acquisition in observational learning. After received a pretest, subjects were requested to estimate their response uncertainty concerning a task used in the pretest. Then they observed a model responding to a series of pictures each of which depicting one of four directions. The model's responses were governed by a rule consisted of two dimensions: the progression and the direction. After observing the demonstration, subjects received two post-tests which differed in the order of stimulus presentation and in terms of the reinforcement. Subjects enhancing their feelings of uncertainty in the pretest phase acquired a rule which contained a dimension of the progression, while subjects who did not enhance them acquired a rule used by the model. These findings were interpreted as generally supporting the hypothesis of response uncertainty as a mediator of rule learning.
Using a method of monitoring information acquisition, 76 subjects were instructed to simulate the information search process in which they selected a behavior from available behavioral alternatives which were expected to occur in a situation where donating behavior was needed. In order to measure the cognitive changes, they were asked to rate the importance of behavioral attributes both before and after the decision task. After the decision task, they were asked to rate the inner states. (1) Defensive cognitive changes were found which increased the importance of behavioral costs and decreased the importance of personal moral obligation feelings. This pattern of changes was consistent with the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (2) The defensive cognitive changes were related to the information search strategies. This pattern of relationship partly confirmed the prediction derived from the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (3) The result that the cognitive changes were not related to the inner states was inconsistent with the model of either Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark (1981, 1982) or Schwartz & Howard (1981, 1982, 1984). An alternative model was proposed and discussed.
By means of a delayed recognition task, propositions were tested about the retention of verbatim information on Japanese S-O-V sentences based on spreading activation in memory representations. Subjects studied written sentences under incidental instructions, and a recognition test was made after a 10-minute delay. In the test, subjects verified whether the sentences were true or false for (a) original sentences, (b) synonymous distractors (verbs replaced by synonyms), and (c) non-synonymous distractors (verbs replaced by non-synonyms). In Experiment I, subjects verified original sentences more accurately, faster, and more confidently than those having distractors. Results of Experiment II, in which subjects retrieved two related sentences sequentially, showed an inhibition (fan) effect for hits. In addition, there was a facilitation (priming) effect for correct rejections. These findings provide evidence in support of the spreading activation theory of memory.
The purpose of the paper is to construct a personality inventory which measures broader dimensions regarding multiple traits of personality common to normal people by means of extensive use of factor analysis. For the purpose, we prepared 300 items which are supposed to reflect the hypothetical 20 personality traits. Out of the 300 items, 240 items were selected on the basis of means and standard deviations of the items. We applied the oblique Promax rotation method in factor analysis and repeated it several times by changing the number of items and the number of factors. Finally, 12 factors were extracted from the 120 items, in each of which the 10 items having more than 0.4 factor loadings. Basing upon the result, we constructed a new personality inventory consisting of 13 scales (including a lie scale). The constructed scales demonstrated high testmretest reliabilities ranging from 0.880 to 0.950.
The relationship between representation of a person and evaluative impression of that person was investigated by presenting two stimulus persons, each by six trait adjectives, to subjects of the impression group, memory group, and category group. The representation was measured by two kinds of RTs and the amount of recall, and the evaluative impression by ratings on S-D items. When subjects' representation of a stimulus person contained less information for impression ratings, the resulting impression was stable and consistent with the implicit personality theory. As the amount of the information increased in the order of the impression, category, and memory groups, however, the stability of the impression ratings declined even for the same stimulus person.
The purpose of this study was to examine motor control and kinesthetic perception of upper extremity in patients with Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy. Nine normal subjects and nine subjects with muscular dystrophy performed a pursuit tracking task with step wave target by means of isometric contraction, and simultaneously estimated magnitude of muscular tension during tracking behavior. The results were as follows: (1) the muscular electrical activity measured from the EMGs was directly proportional to the muscular tension for both the normal and the muscular dystrophy groups, (2) the speed of step response for the muscular dystrophy group was slower than that for the normal group, and (3) the exponent of power function for the muscular dystrophy group tended to be smaller than that for the normal group. These results were discussed in terms of the stage of disability in progressive muscular dystrophy.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect on performance of the relationship between teacher expectancy and self-expectancy. For the induced expectancy, a random half of 96 high school students enrolled in a four-week summer language course of a Christian association were described to the instructors as having high success potential. The remaining trainees served as controls. Correct scores on the learning task, instructor ratings of trainees, general expectancy and specific expectancy scores of trainees, trainee ratings of behavior and attitude of the instructors were measured on three sessions of the course. Ratings of teacher's behavior were factor-analyzed and four interpretable factors emerged: Support, Caring, Attention, and Tutoring. The induced expectancy and specific levels of self-expectancy had significant effects on the subjects' performance and ratings of the instructor. It was concluded that self-expectancy mediates the effects of teacher expectancy on learning performance. Implications of these results for the Pygmalion effect were discussed.
Psychological studies on accommodation are reviewed on the following subjects: (1) subjective and objective methods of measuring accommodation, and their related practical problems in visual experiments, (2) accommodative responses in the absence of an adequate visual stimulus (a resting point of accommodation or a dark focus), and the specific phenomena of night myopia, empty myopia and instrument myopia, (3) contribution of accommodation to the perception of depth and the influence of imagination or thinking of distance on accommodation, (4) unsettled problems on accommodation in the three domains of myopia mentioned above, and the prospect of research in the future, and (5) a description of the results of psychological studies on accommodation that are applied to the establishment of an optimal condition of visual environment.