The purpose of the present study was to examine the tacit coordination in interdependent relationships between two persons. Subjects, 320 college students, were asked to complete the questionnaire in supposed interaction situations. It was shown that in the correspondentsimilar condition, in which each person knew that another person was doing the same, they could concert their expectations with each other without aids of communication or prior arrangement. The degree of coordination depended on the clue that the situation offered. In the control condition, a similar type of coincidence sometimes appeared in individual choices. In correspondent-complementary and noncorrespondent conditions, in which either one or both person tried to act differently from the other, they made their choices more diverge than in the correspondent-similar condition, but in some cases similar coincidence of choices occurred. It was concluded that the situational clues led to high degree of expectatory coordination with others, and also brought about a bias in choices.
The present experiments investigated the changes of altruistic responses through observational learning (OL) in elementary school children (ages 10 and 11) with relation to the characteristics of the modeled events and the observers' traits. The former included certain categories of observed materials and the methods of presentation. The latter included subject's impression, empathy for, and evaluation of these materials. The OL was the symbolic modeling of altruistic behavior by presentation of pictures with narration. The response measures were the rating of pre- and post-questionnaires on the altruistic stories. The main result of Experiment I showed that subjects responded selectively to each pretest questionnaire, and that the observational learning was most effective on the similar kind of behavior type. The generalization of OL to other items of categories was also observed. In Experiment II, the combined effect of a pair of observed materials (positive or negative altruistic content) was examined. The effect of OL was highest when the material presented was a P-N pair, lowest when it was a N-N pair. The observers' traits in empathy, impression, and evaluation on observed materials were positively correlated to the effect of OL.
Four-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and undergraduates were asked to judge typicality of exemplars from natural categories by means of paired comparison in order to examine developmental changes in typicality of the exemplars. The data were analyzed by MDPREF, a computer program for multidimensional analysis of preference data. The results showed that (1) individual differences in typicality judgement decreased with age, (2) typicality of exemplars judged by 4-year-olds was rather similar to that by undergraduates, but (3) there were certain exemplars that revealed difference in typicality by age. Configurations of stimuli obtained by MDPREF were further submitted to the multiple regression analysis with the ratings of stimuli by Semantic Differential technique. This analysis showed some differences between children and undergraduates concerning the basis of typicality judgement.
The present study was intended to evaluate the hypothesis that the nursing-suckling relationship of rats proceeds from the mother-leading-type in early postpartum days to the infants-leading-type in later postpartum. Four groups were organized to make tests on the effects of different kinds of mother-infant separation (8-hr) upon nursing-suckling behaviors. Groups were Groups MIS (a separated mother and infants group), MS (mother-separated and infants-fostered group), IS (a foster-mother and separated-infants group), and C (non-separated control group). The separation of each group, lasting for 8-hr, was made at 1-2, 6-7, 11-12, 16-17, 21-22, 26-27, and 31-32 days after parturition. In Exp. I, nursing behavior of mother and suckling and/or eating behavior of infants in mother-infant interactions were observed by time-sampling method for 30 min following 8-hr of separation. In Exp. II, the suckling test of infants (half of the litter) was made on the anesthetized mother at the presence of food pellets. The results of Exp. I showed that nursing-suckling episodes were more frequent in Groups MIS, MS, and IS than in Group C (Fig. 1). Further, the differences among the first three groups were not significant before 11-12 days of age. However, the infant-separated group (Group IS) showed higher level of response at 16-17, 21-22 days of age, suggesting the active role of infants in starting nursing-suckling episodes at these ages. These results suggest that the hypothesis previously mentioned regarding the active role of mother and infants in nursing-suckling relationship is not valid at early stage. Namely, high frequency of nursing-suckling episode in Group IS implies that the separated infants may have activated maternal behavior by changing their stimulus characteristics at these ages. According to the results of suckling shown to the anesthetized mother (Exp. II), separation of infants was the main determinant of the suckling behavior under these conditions of controlled maternal behavior (Figs. 3, 4). Finally, separated infants preferred eating to suckling after 26-27 days of age both in the mother-infant interaction and in the suckling test (Figs. 2, 5, 6). This finding indicates that the weaning process of rats follows next four stages: spontaneous eating of solid foods (15-16 days), equal level of eating and suckling (21-22 days), predominance of eating (26-27 days), and finally disappearance of suckling (31-32 days).
The purpose of the present experiment was to compare the relative usefulness of drive and self-presentation approaches to social facilitation. Thirty-nine undergraduates were divided into two groups for the experiment. Group 1 was given a delayed choice reaction task under two different conditions. The first session was done with the subjects in isolation, and the second session was done with the subjects in front of an audience. Group 2 was given a delayed choice reaction task under the condition of isolation only. Latency was found to be substantially longer under the audience condition. There were, however, no significant effects on the mean number of the correct responses. These results point to inadequacies in drive approach and give support to self-presentation view, which assumes that subjects may scan more carefully and attempt to exhibit a socially valued behavior in others' presence.
Forty-five students participated in a selective free recall experiment which was designed to examine the process of selective memorization. The following three conditions were utilized: U (unrelated) list condition, where there was no meaningful relation between any neighboring pair of items; NCR (no-cross-related) list condition, where there were meaningful relations between the neighboring not-to-be-memorized items, but not between the neighboring to-be-memorized and not-to-be-memorized items; CR (cross-related) list condition, where there were meaningful relations between the neighboring to-be-memorized and not-to-be-memorized items. The percentage of correct recall for the to-be-memorized items was smaller and the number of intrusion-errors was larger in the CR list condition than in the U and the NCR list conditions, while there was no difference between the U and the NCR list conditions in those indices. The percentage of correct recall for the not-to-be-memorized items in the NCR and the CR list conditions was larger than in the U list condition in the initial and the middle sections within the serial positions. The results suggested that the not-to-be-memorized items receive semantic analysis and are maintained in short-term memory and that they have the chance to be transformed into long-term memory irrespective of the type of their relations with the to-be-memorized items.
Using 41 modifiers expressing future time in daily life, structural differentiation of psychological future time was examined. The modifiers, mainly adverbs, were selected from a Japanese dictionary based on some criteria. The subjects, 407 male and female college students, were asked to estimate the length of time for each modifier and also to make a short statement including each modifier. The results indicated that the modifiers had a uni-dimensional structure corresponding to the order of six kinds of time units. Short statements were classified into one of four categories, i.e., activity, expectancy, hope and prospect, with some criteria. It was found that they were matched well with the characteristics of the modifiers. Based upon these findings, a future time differentiation model was proposed.
The intrahemispheric overflow hypothesis was examined by the cognitive-motor interference method. Subjects were 12 right handed male adults. As the concurrent cognitive task the present study employed Milner's recent-memory (verbal and nonverbal) task which was assumed by the author to be related to the frontal lobe function. The motor task was a single finger repetitive tapping, which control is thought to involve the motor area in the anterior regions of the hemispheres. In verbal material, general interference occurred during both encoding and decoding periods. In nonverbal material, however, recency task interfered with the left hand during decoding period only when the load effect was maximum. The result indicated that even if there were no functional overlap, interference could occur by neural overflow.
The development of relationships between the temporal ordering of verbal or non-verbal events and the verbal regulation of motor behavior was examined with a total of 142 4- and 5-years old. Performances on a two-choice button-pushing task were compared between high or low groups determined by either verbal or non-verbal recency task, Children conducted the buttonpushing task with their dominant hand under following two conditions: verbalization and non-verbalization of their button-pushing activity. Results showed that the low group in verbal recency task manifested significantly poorer performances than the high group, whereas there was no difference in performance between the high and the low groups in non-verbal recency task. These findings were interpreted as supporting the view that the verbal regulation of motor behavior are related to the function of the left-frontal lobe.