This paper describes a theory of human melody perception and his final-tone extrapolation behavior, enbodied in a computer simulation model called FTES 2. Related experimental findings were also presented. The processes used by an expert musician in extrapolating final-tones and the computer simulation of these processes are contrasted and discussed. The theory consisted of a few general rules and several personal “tonal” processing rules. The present findings indicate that interpretation of a melody depends, in large part, on the characteristics of the “tonal” rules.
Behavior change by persuasive communications in a social dilemma, in which a university tried to persuade students to park their motorcycles in a designated lot in order to resolve noise problems, was studied by a questionnaire. Hayashi's quantification theory III was applied to variables such as subjective norms, beliefs in the effectiveness of one's cooperation, the perception of campus traffic conditions and attitudes toward one's parking behavior. Factor scores obtained were subjected to a cluster analysis, which, within 105 defectors, yielded three subgroups. Contrary to prediction, subgroups were not different in their cooperation ratio examined 10 months later, but tended to be different in their readiness for acceptance of persuasion and in their intention to cooperate in a social dilemma other than parking. Two mechanisms underlying cooperation were revealed: internalization of prosocial norm, and compliance in which cooperation was unaccompanied by correspondent changes in normative beliefs. The Fishbein model was applicable only to change through internalization. A linear assumption in the Fishbein model between evaluative attitude and behavior should be reexamined in its application to a social dilemma.
The ideal self is defined as a cognitive structure which contains representations of desired and undesired states for the self. Its structural properties and role in processing trait informations are examined by asking subjects to make “ideal self” referent ratings, and comparing their performance on various cognitive tasks. Results indicate that the ideal self leads to faster processing and better memory of relevant information as compared to neutral items. Data from the recognition memory test revealed a significant bias in the recognition of relevant but nonpresented items (Exp. 1). Relevant trait items are more easily translated into concrete behavioral descriptions (Exp. 2). Information about the actual self are abundant in the ideal self relevant domains (Exp. 3). Total results suggest that the ideal self is a rich, well-integrated cognitive structure, which serves as a frame of reference in processing information. However, memory of trait information which is negatively relevant to the ideal self is to some extent inhibited, suggesting that affect also influences the processing of trait information.
Since there are so many Japanese personality trait names, which include the word “ki”, it is plausible that these expressions reflect the characteristics of the way the structure of the personality is grasped by the Japanese. The purpose of the present study is to reveal those characteristics viewed through the word “ki” by means of factor analysis. Forty male and 31 female six-year-old children were rated by their preschool teachers with regard to the 25 personality trait names using the word “ki”. Factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded following four factors: “ki” was regarded as (1) changeable material. Our personality was metaphorically seen as having this “ki” within it and basically changeable. (2) Attention toward others. Our personality was evaluated by the extent we pay attentions to others. (3) Radio waves between people. Capacity of “tuning in” to others was our characteristic way of evaluating a person. (4) Quantity of psychic energy. In this factor, “ki” was thought as metaphorically related to the body.
One important issue in direct priming research is whether or not priming effects are restricted to single words. Four series of experiments were conducted with word pairs. The reading time was measured for physically inverted word pairs written in katakana characters. The results indicated that the direct priming effect was obtained with word pairs regardless of the task condition, perceptual or semantic. The important thing is whether the task is processed in an integrated manner or not.
The purposes of this paper are, 1) to determine the dimensions representing the structure of conscious level “sex-role-acceptance” by the female adolescents in relation to the environments within which the subjects were brought up and educated, and 2) to investigate several factors under which the conscious structure of role-acceptance have been deeply influenced: i.e., parents, sibling, boy friends in intimate terms, and others (male or female). Our data were collected from more than 1800 female students, and were subjected to multivariate analyses. The results were: 1) The following three dimensions pertaining to their sex-role-related decisionmaking were obtained: Biological, Sociahmotivational, and Self-interest. 2) The difference in the conscious-structure between the role acceptance group and the non-acceptance group was statistically significant. 3) the father-daughter interaction was significantly important in creating an active contributional will in the girls' life-plan, while the mother-daughter interaction turned out to have a rather negative influence upon their will of contribution. 4) The lack of identification with parents was sometimes compensated by their identification with others. The social importance of positive, warm support for the youngsters was clearly demonstrated.
Relationships between the manner of hand clasping and the individual differences in hemispheric specialization measured by the degree of either perceptual asymmetry (using composite symmetric faces) or individual hemisphericity (using the hemisphericity task by Ogura & Hatta) were examined. Subjects were 46 right-handed college students (23 males and 23 females). In the face perception task, the L-type subjects who clasp the hands with the left thumb uppermost showed greater degrees of asymmetry than the R-type ones. In the hemisphericity task that examines preferences for either the verbal (letters or numerals) or the non-verbal (pictures) materials, the L-type subjects preferred the non-verbal materials more often than the R-type ones. These results were discussed in relation with the asymmetric hemispheric arousal model proposed by Levy, Heller, Banich, & Burton (1983).
The effects of rote, repetitive (primary) rehearsal duration and the type of material to be rehearsed were examined in an incidental learning procedure, the distractor recall task. Each trial consisted of the presentation of four-digit number to be remembered immediately followed by the presentation of a single “distractor” word. Subjects (24 university students) were to repeat that word aloud until told to recall the number. After the last trial there was a final recall and recognition of these distractor words. As a result, increasing the duration of primary rehearsal improved recognition memory, but not recall, independently of the familiarity values of words. These results were explained by two-stage theory of recall. Further, dichotomy of rehearsal was discussed in terms of the distinction between intra- and inter-item processing.
EEGs were recorded from 12 positions of the scalp (10-20 system) in 30 normal right-handed subjects. Powers of alpha component obtained from contralateral loci during their performance of verbal tasks (definition of nouns, tongue twisting) and non-verbal tasks (memorization of shapes, imagination of a face) were compared. At the frontal and occipital regions, the right hemisphere dominance of the alpha component was more distinctly demonstrated during the verbal tasks than the non-verbal tasks, while at the occipito-temporal region, the left hemisphere dominance was distinctly demonstrated during the non-verbal tasks than the verbal tasks. However, the alpha components were dominant at the left occipito-temporal region during the verbal tasks and at the right frontal and occipital regions during the non-verbal tasks. The latter result was discussed in relation to the findings of Moss, Davidson, & Saron (1985) and noise generated by apparatuses. Component analysis was carried out for a correlation matrix made by four task variables and 12 samples of electrode positions. Two factors were derived; the first factor was loaded on the verbal tasks whereas the second factor on non-verbal tasks. The factor scores of the first factor were high at the right temporal region and those of the second factor at the left temporal region. These results proved the utility of principal factor method onto general patterns of alpha component during the tasks.