The hypothesis was that boundary spanning roles should be enriched because those who have such roles must behave flexibly in order to make decisions efficiently when interacting with an uncertain environment. The hypothesis was not supported in a questionnaire study of 221 public officials in a city government. Boundary roles need not necessarily have been accompanied by enriched jobs. To the public officials questioned interaction with external environment may be a part of their routines and not particularly stimulating. An unexpected finding was obtained which suggested complementary relationships between interdependent jobs and boundary spanning roles. In more closed groups in which all members need not have performed boundary spanning roles, interdependent jobs facilitated integration and motivated public officials. The more open the groups were, the more independent were their members. But in the most open groups in which each member interacted with externals and in which the boundaried were not significant, an interdependent job was needed to confirm membership and to motivate the members.
Two experiments were conducted to explore the nature of the memory trace that mediated priming effects in perceptual identification. In Experiment I, the script type of items (Kana and Kanji) was manipulated between study and test phases. Priming effects were greater when the script type was held constant between study and test. This suggested that memory for physical information mediates priming effects. Experiment II was designed for dissociation between phonemic and semantic information of the memory trace, using homophones as study and test items. Subjects more readily identified homophones that were both phonemically and semantically constant between study and test than homophones that were only phonemically constant. Further, significant priming effects were obtained even when the physical and semantic information were changed between study and test. These results suggested that not only memory for physical information but also for phonemic and semantic information mediates priming effects in perceptual identification.
This study aims to investigate the axes for estimating the elementary school environment. There are many elements which seems to have an effect on pupil's cognition of school environment. Among them, three elements (school scale, learning program, and structure) were selected. A questionnaire survey concerned with the school environment was carried out to 11 elementary schools which vary in these three elements. The subjects were 2892 pupils (forth-sixth grade). The questions were 103 items on various cognitions, such as space, class, teacher, etc. Using factor analysis, five factors (crowding and rule, autonomy, want for change, pliable use of space, and unity of class) were found, Four of them relate to these elements. Examining the characteristics of each type of school, the similarity between the open school and the small school, i.e. luck of the unity of class, was suggested.
Greenberg (1980) proposed that the magnitude of indebtedness (I) was a function of the recipient's benefits (B) from the aid attempt plus the donor's costs (C). This relationship is expressed by the equation I=x1B+x2C, x1>x2, where x1 and x2 are empirically determined weights. The present study examined the validity of this equation. The subjects, 272 university students, were asked to place themselves in the role of a hypothetical student confronted with each of 32 different situations in which the student needed some aid from others, and to answer a series of questions regarding their reactions. A multiple regression analysis validated the equation in 23 out of the 32 situations. In situations in which the outcome of the aid attempt was successful with low cost for the donor, there was a tendency for the subjects to estimate x1 to be smaller than x2(x1<x2).
This study examined (a) acceptability of phrases whose modifier adjective and head noun refer to different sense modalities, and (b) such cross-modal adjective properties by means of similarity judgment of these phrases. In Experiment 1, 58 subjects rated 60 sense adjectives as to their acceptability in modifying nine modality-denoting nouns (touch, taste, smell; color, sound; memory, mood, idea, personality). The phrases were rated highly acceptable when the adjectives denoting lower-modal qualities were combined with the nouns denoting higher-modal contents (e. g., soft sound, sweet mood, bright memory). In Experiment 2, two groups of 30 subjects judged the similarity of the highly acceptable phrases for each of the nine modalitydenoting nouns. Multidimensional scaling of these data revealed two- and three-dimensional configurations of the adjectives for each modality-denoting noun. Multiple regression analysis indicated that two independently rated properties, pleasantness and intensity, provided a satisfactory interpretation of each configuration. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that most of the first- and second-order canonical correlations among the nine three-dimensional configurations were significant. These results suggest that there is a common dimension of sense adjectives across different modalities.
The purpose of this study was to examine how Hand Test performance is affected by test definition included with task instructions. The Hand Test was administered to male college students equally divided into three groups which differed in terms of the type of test definition included with the task instruction as follows: (1) Emotionally disturbed test definition (ED Group); (2) Imagery test definition (IM Group); and, (3) Standard instruction with no test definition (N Group). The MMPI was subsequently administered to all subjects with the following results. The ED Group revealed higher DES and lower ACQ scores than the N Group. The IM Group obtained higher DES and TEN scores and lower ACQ and ICP (CRIP) scores than the N Group. The ED Group exhibited positive correlations between PASS, ACQ and IOP (CRIP) scores and psychopathological MMPI scales while the IM Group revealed negative correlations between ACQ, PASS, TEN, ICP (CRIP), FEAR and DES scores and psychopathological MMPI scales. These results indicated in general that Hand Test performance is sensitive to the test situation and that this factor should be taken into account when Hand Test responses are interpreted.
In order to examine the process of acquiring spatial knowledge, strategies to explore the space were investigated. Verbal protocol and sketch maps of 20 adults were collected while they were exploring unfamiliar environment. According to the degree of organization of sketch maps, the subjects were classified into the following two groups: High Organization Group (HO) and Low Organization Group (LO). The former group was farther divided into two subgroups by the accuracy of sketch maps with respect to two spatial characteristics (landmark and position): HOL and HOP. Contents of the verbal protocol were classified into seven groups according to monitoring items, and the number of utterances of each item were counted. HOL monitored the encoding items much more frequently than LO, while HOP monitored the encoding items as well as the items related to the inference and evaluation of results much more frequently than LO. These results suggest that the process of acquiring spatial knowledge is classified into two main types.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of perceived similarity upon the power maintaining tendency of the powerholder. In advance an aptitude test was administerd to the subjects and a powerholder was to be appointed. Each subject was led to believe that he was screened and appointed as a powerholder (top-leader) from a group of five participants. Each subject was also led to believe that the subleader of the high performance group has either the similar or the dissimilar attitude toward a favorable leadership style, and was assigned to either status change condition or non status change condition. The results showed as follows. (1) Compared to the powerholders under non status change condition, the powerholders under status change condition attempted more to influence the high performance group under dissimilar condition than similar condition; (2) Regardless of the perceived similarity of the sub-leader, they evaluated highly their contributions to the high performance group, (3) exercised more coercive power, (4) gave more difficult tasks to the high performance group. These results were discussed in terms of the strength of power maintaining tendency of the powerholder and the conflicts originated in the experimental situation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1932) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.