A questionnaire administered to 1391 nurses in big hospitals revealed that they were strongly motivated if they expected good results from their efforts and if they had enough information about what they were supposed to do and how. Satisfactory work situations were characterized by smooth feedback, role clarity and so on. Even nurses who responded to external rewards were internally motivated to carry out complex jobs if they received sufficient information about the jobs presumably because the information eliminated uncertainty about their roles. Autonomy, or delegated power and responsibility, tended to be motivating only for the nurses who placed high valence on intrinsic rewards, that is, who received encouragement from the accomplishment of the job itself. These results suggest that even those who have more extrinsic needs may be motivated by the complexity of the job. Individual differences in the response to the job may be understood as a matter of information-prosessing such as the extent of adaptation to the job.
Four experiments were carried out to examine the effects of statistical properties of discrete time series graphically displayed on a computer display on human prediction. Experiment 1 showed that instead of the standard deviation, the normalized integrated absolute autocorrelation function, which was a measure of the periodicity of time series, influenced human prediction of future values of a time series. Errors of human prediction increased with decreasing values of normalized integrated absolute autocorrelation function. The results of the paired comparison in Experiment 2 and 3 showed that values of normalized integrated absolute autocorrelation function influenced substantially the predictability of future values of time series, while the standard deviation affected secondarily human prediction, when the values of the function were the same. The statistical properties of the time series produced by subjects in Experiment 4 supported the relevance of normalized integrated absolute autocorrelation function as a measure of the effects of statistical properties of time series on human prediction.
The purpose of the present study was, first, to investigate the influences of four types of decision strategies-additive (ADD), additive difference (ADD-DIF), conjunctive (CON), and lexicographic (LEX) strategies-on decision time and subjective states, and, second, to investigate the usage frequency of the strategies in various conditions of a consumer choice task. Each subject, 208 university students in all, was randomly assigned to one cell of a 4 (ADD, ADD-DIF, CON, or LEX strategy) ×2 (4 or 10 alternatives) × 2 (4 or 10 attributes) design. (1) Subjects who utilized ADD and ADD-DIF strategies which were compensatory styles required longer decision time, and reported greater perceived information load and greater usage frequency than subjects who utilized CON and LEX strategies which were non-compensatory styles. (2) LEX strategy produced greater perceived uncertainty than ADD, ADD-DIF, and CON strategies. (3) Decision time and perceived information load increased with increased alternatives for all strategies, and they increased with increased attributes for ADD, ADD-DIF, and CON strategies.
The double-nail illusion occurs when the images of two nails located at different distances from the observer fall on the corresponding retinal points, giving rise to the impression that the two nails are placed side by side at an equal distance from him. Experiment 1 showed that when two stimuli located on the mid-sagittal plane and at different distances were viewed in such a way that their images fall on the corresponding points, the perceived distance of the stimuli corresponded to the convergence distance. In Experiment 2, the convergence distance was changed gradually to get the measure of the distances at which the double-nail illusion appeared or disappeared. The results indicated the same kind of hysteresis as that previously observed in the ‘dynamic’ wallpaper phenomenon. Experiment 3 demonstrated the “double” wallpaper illusion, in which two wallpaper stimuli located in two different frontal-parallel planes appeared in a plane between the two and parallel to them. It showed moreover that the perceived distance of the wallpaper stimuli corresponded to the perceived distance obtained in the case of the double-nail illusion. The results of the three experiments indicated the commonality of the double-nail illusion with the wallpaper phenomenon and suggested that they share the same underlying perceptual processes. The principles of egocentric visual direction and distance were discussed with respect to the results.
Spatial limitation in visual information processing was examined with dot-in-matrix patterns by using a probe recognition procedure. The independent variables were the number (1-16 dots) and the position of target dots. Subjects were four undergraduate students. The data were analyzed and discussed from three points of view; span of attention, spatial limitation of recognition and visual attention. The followings became clear: First, the span of position recognition was 4.8. Second, “spatial span of attention” was defined as the range of dot positions at which subjects can perceive target dots with 75% or more accuracy. It extended around the fixation point and shrinked with the increase of the number of target dots. Finally, the distribution of spatial attention was estimated for each target dot condition under the assumption that the hit RT at each probe position reflects the amount of attention allocated there. Distributions estimated were cone-shaped, and the height and extent changed with the number of target dots. It was suggested that spatial limitation (i.e. spatial span of attention) in the processing of spatial, positions can be explained by the notion of distribution of spatial attention.
Two hypotheses were developed: 1) People who have experienced many misfortunes and calamities believe in superstitions and proverbs and often practise them as compared to those with few or no such experience; and 2) university students' attitude and behavior toward supersitions and proverbs are related to those of their parents. One hundred and three students and their 103 parents (father or mother) were asked to indicate: 1) their attitude and practice regarding each of 42 superstitions and proverbs; 2) past visits to fortune tellers and exorcism rites; and 3) past experience of misfortunes and calamities. People with experience of misfortunes and calamities had a higher ratio than those without such experience only in “visits to fortune tellers and exorcism rites.” There was no such trend in the 42 superstitions and proverbs. There was a close parent-child relation in the attitude toward superstitions. A similar relation was observed in superstitious practice in family life. However, no parent-child relationship was found for the proverb-related attitude and behavior.
Relations between friend choice and school performance were examined in terms of a self-evaluation maintenance model in 59 elementary school children and 56 junior high school students. Two questionnaires measured students' ratings of their own school performance and of school performance of a friend and a distant classmate on high relevant and low relevant subjects. It was found that students perceived themselves as performing relatively better than a friend on high relevant subjects and as performing worse on low relevant subjects. These tendencies were especially marked among male students, and among elementary school children. Analyses of actual grades showed that students chose as friends those classmates whose actual grades were similar or inferior to their own on high relevant subjects and better than their own on low relevant subjects.
The objects of the present study are to classify ordinary social predicaments and to examine the relationships between the perceptions of those predicaments and the verbal strategies for impression management. One hundred and twenty male undergraduates were asked to rate 15 social predicaments on 20 9-point scales. The ratings were analysed by SUMSCAL procedure, and based on the extracted dimensions social predicaments were classified by the cluster method. The subjects were also required to describe their verbal responses (e.g. excuses) as offenders in each situation. Correlations between clusters and verbal responses were examined. The results indicated that; (a) three dimensions were found to underlie perception of social predicaments-controllability, affective responsiveness, and offensiveness; (b) social predicaments were grouped into five clusters; (c) the clusters closely correlated with the subjects' verbal responses. These results showed that the impression management strategies selected by the offender in social predicaments were determined by their perceptions of the situations.