Two experiments were performed to investigate stimulus determinants of pattern complexity and pattern goodness. Two hundred and ninety-six undergraduates rated complexity and goodness of two-dimensional patterns, which consisted of solid and/or open circles. The patterns were invariant under transformations of reflection or rotation, and they formed cyclic groups or dihedral ones. The results were summarized as follows. (1) Goodness of patterns increased with the order of cyclic and dihedral groups with different weights. (2) Complexity of patterns having line-segments decreased with the order of cyclic and dihedral groups with equal weights, whereas that of patterns having no line-segments was medium regardless of the order. (3) Simplicity and goodness of patterns with a vertical axis of reflection were higher than those with the other orientation axes. (4) Patterns consisting of solid circles were rated more complex than those of open ones. (5) Complexity increased as a positively accelerated function of the number of circles, whereas goodness increased as a negatively accelerated function. It was concluded that complexity and goodness were determined by compound factors, which are processed at different stages of human visual system.
Sex difference in susceptibility to DAF (delayed auditory feedback) in oral reading of texts was investigated. Forty adults, 20 males and 20 females with normal speech and hearing abilities, read aloud two kinds of texts, one easy to read and the other difficult, under two conditions, NAF (normal auditory feedback) and DAF. Delays were 150, 200, 300, 400 and 500ms and the feedback intensity was 90dB in SPL at maximum. Susceptibility to DAF was defined as max |DAF Index| under five DAF conditions (DAF Index=1-CMR(τ)/CMR(0), where CMR was correct mora rate per second and τ the delay). As the results, the susceptibility was significantly higher in males than in females for easy texts. Sex difference of the feedback mechanism for articulation was clearer in easy texts than in difficult ones. It was suggested that the articulatory movement was more cognitively controled by the route of auditory feedback in males than in females.
Visual articulation of compound figures is more fragmentary in children whereas it is more integrated in adults. In this experiment, eye movement of children during visual exploration of test figures was recorded under the hypothesis that the fragmentary articulation should be related to the same fragmentary character of the eye movement. The subjects were 20 children of 4-, 5- and 6-years old and the eye movement was recorded by a video monitor system accompanied by an EOG. The cognitive articulation was analyzed by a picture drawing task of the same figures and compared with the patterns of the eye movement. As the results, the children of fragmentary articulation in drawing also showed more partial-successive and inefficient exploratioe movement than those children of integrated articulation. The hypothesis was confirmed.
The fallacious probability judgment of binary event sequence (Bernoulli sequence) was studied in terms of probability cognition. The categorizational fallacy hypothesis (Kasai, 1982) asserts that people tend to respond with a categorical probability (the probability of occurrence of the category to which a given instance belongs) even when they are asked to answer the individual probability of instance. In Exp. 1, 46 undergraduates were instructed to make the paired comparison of probability among 15 binary sequences of length 6. Their modal judgments were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the ideal probability distributions and also with the predictions from the subjective distributions which were generated by 24 undergraduates in Exp. 2. The results confirmed the predictions, particularly those based on the subjective distributions (maximum hit rate 82.9%). Based on these results it was concluded that the subjects judged the likelihood of each sequence in terms of categorical probability rather than the required individual probability, and it was suggested that the fallacious judgment is derived from the cognitive process of abstracting and symbolizing.
Cognitive processes for feedback information on self-concept as influenced by the receiver's perception of the sender's trait were examined in 40 male and female undergraduates. Subjects in the consistent and inconsistent feedback situations received information consistent and inconsistent with their initial self-rating of a trait, respectively. The sender (confederate) had a higher or lower scale score for the same trait than the subjects. Subsequently, subjects did final self-rating. Inconsistent feedback produced self-concept changes no more than consistent feedback only when the sender had a higher trait tendency than the subjects. This finding suggests: (1) only in the inconsistent feedback situation, the receiver sets out to search cause of feedback; (2) whether or not the receiver changes one's self-concept depends on causal attribution of inconsistent feedback; and (3) the direction of causal attribution is influenced by the receiver's consideration of the sender's trait tendency.
Present study aimed at to examine the process that people acquire the control of a novel muscular activity, of which they have had little experience of voluntary control, by electromyograph (EMG) biofeedback. Thirty undergraduate students who were unable to move their ears served as subjects. They were asked to give tension unto the m. auricularis posterior (the muscle to draw an ear backward). A factorial design was employed with two levels of strategy (transferring, non-transferring) and three methods of how to provide with the EMG feedback signals from the m. auricularis posterior druing training session (no-feedback, biofeedback, intermittent biofeed-back). The experiment was consisted of four sessions: rest, pre-test, training, and post-test. Main results were as follows: (1) Two groups, which subjects used the transferring strategy and the feedback signals, significantly increased the integrated EMG of the m. auricuraris posterior from pre- to post-tests. (2) Furthermore, the EMG-increase was significantly greater in one group, which feedback signals were intermittently given at every other training trial, than another group, which feedback signals were given at all trials. (3) It was also found that no increase of awareness to the muscular tension occured despite the increase of EMG activity.
In this article some of the recent researches on music perception are reviewed, with a special emphasis upon those that concern melody organization and musical pitch. Lerdahl and Jackendoff (1983) pointed out that there is a grammatical parallel between music and language, and presented some grammatical rules for the tonal music. Serafine (1983) cautioned us not to confuse the “style principles” with the “musical cognitive process”. The recent experiments on musical pitch and melody has reinforced the psychological validity of musical segmentation, tonality, pitch chroma, scale, and key. Theoretical approaches to the relations in the scale systems gave the possibility of a “new scale system” for use in psychological experiments, while the recent pitch models has made it possible for us to control tonality and to generate tones never used before in playing music. The need for a greater cross-stylistic generality of psychological concepts in music and the farther clarification of the “musical cognitive process” through experiments utilizing the “new scale system” and the “new tones” are indicated.