Japanese has three sets of demonstratives: ko-series (nearer to the speaker), so-series (nearer to the hearer; moderately away from the speaker), a-series (far from the speaker). The influence of operability and the dehumanization of the hearer on the deictic use of ko, so, a was examined in production task with 30 college students. The conditions investigated were as follows: (a) the speaker used a pointer, enhancing the speaker's operability; (b) the hearer was seated beside the speaker, decreasing the speaker's range of operability; (c) instructions were given by a tape recorder, allowing the dehumanization of the hearer; (d) a control condition. The ko area was enlarged in condition (a) and reduced in condition (b). Use of so ref eying to objects near the hearer decreased in condition (c). Use of so in the case of moderately away from the speaker was not affected by the location and the dehumanization of the hearer. The hypotheses were largely confirmed.
A simultaneous face discrimination learning task was given to 15 autistic children and 14 normal controls. Face stimuli were presented in the form of schematic line drawing. After attaining discrimination, their responses to facial components, namely, color, expression and orientation (upright or inverted), were tested. The autistic group more frequently responded incorrectly to orientation than to the other two components. Moreover, the response latencies to all the three components were shorter in the autistic group than in the normal group. Using the same experimental procedure, a figure discrimination learning task was given to other groups of autistic and normal children. The results indicated no significant differences between the autistic and normal groups in either the rate of correct responses or the latency to figure components. These results were interpreted to suggest that the autistic children recognized face stimuli only in terms of component properties.
Two experiments were performed with 96 undergraduates to examine recognition memory of average prototypical exemplars, modal prototypical exemplars and original exemplars in a repeated study-recognition paradigm. In Experiment 1, the amount of within-category variability and the instruction for memorizing were varied. In the narrow category-structure which had less-variable exemplars, the confidence scores were higher for the average prototypical exemplars than for the modal ones, whereas the reverse was true in the wide category-structure which had morevariable exemplars. The confidence scores of modal prototypical exemplars were higher under the abstraction instruction than under the exemplar one. With repeated study-recognition trials, the confidence scores increased for the original exemplars but decreased for the average and modal prototypical exemplars. In Experiment 2, the amount of within-category variability and the presentation procedure of original exemplars were varied. Although the results were about the same as in Exp. 1, the confidence scores of modal prototypical exemplars were higher when the original exemplars were presented successively than when they were simultaneously. The findings were interpreted with reference to distinctiveness of dimensional values of the original exemplars and discriminability between the original exemplars and the prototypical exemplars.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of prior knowledge in consumers' decision making processes. Sixty-four subjects were asked to choose the best car from among seven alternatives for a hypothetical user. Information-acquisition sequence data were analyzed. The results indicated that consumers with high knowledge searched for information by brand more than those with low knowledge, who, on the other hand, searched for information much more by attribute than by brand. These results suggest that more knowledgeable consumers employ decision strategies which generate and use representations of candidate brands, and that less knowledgeable consumers employ strategies designed to narrow down the brands in terms of attribute.
In this study, on each trial subjects were presented visually a different random series of nine digits, and required to memorize and recall them immediately. Among a sequence of trials there were three repetitive learning trials, a few trials apart one from another. On these trials an identical series of nine digits was presented repeatedly. Recall rates of the series of digits on repetitive learning trials rose from the first trial to the second, and, by contraries, fell on the third. We call this fall “paradoxical fall, ” since it is contrary to the expectation of standard theories of learning. It was pointed out that we should investigate the detailed cognitive process, i.e., the microcognitive process, in learning·memory of simple series of digits, because it involves the important basic cognitive process of learning·memory.
Two experiments examined the effects of test-expectancies and test-sequence orders on the phenomenon of recognition failure. In Experiment 1, 18 college students, half of which were male and the other half were female, were randomly divided into two experimental groups. Half of the subjects studied the 42 cue word-target pairs in anticipation of a cued recall test, while the remaining subjects studied the pairs in anticipation of a recognition test. In Experiment 2, 36 college students (18 male and 18 femal students) were randomly divided into two experimental groups. Half of the subjects were tested successively, first for recognition and then for recall, and the remaining subjects were tested in the reverse order. The results showed that the magnitude of recognition failure decreased when the subjects expected the recognition test. There were no appreciable sequential testing effects on the magnitude of recognition failure, however. These results imply that the phenomenon of recognition failure is not an artifactual one in the recognition-recall testing order, and that the magnitude depends on encoding conditions.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the function of connectives in text comprehension. Twenty six subjects were instructed to read six texts, each containing several target sentences. Eighteen target sentences were provided, and each of the subjects was presented half of the target sentences in their original form, i.e., with a connective (Connective condition, C), and the other half, without a connective (No-connective condition, NC). After reading, subjects were asked to recall all the target sentences. In recall, all the sentences preceding the target sentence were presented as a cue. Recall rate was higher for the C condition than for the NC condition. The result indicated that connectives facilitate text comprehension. This effect was seen most clearly in three connective categories called jyunsetsu (e. g., causality), gyakusetsu (i.e., adversative), hosoku (i.e., supplement) in Japanese.
The short-term retention of temporal order and that of spatial position were compared using six types of materials. They were three types of letters: (a) Hiragana (phonetically one syllable), (b) Kanji-1 (one syllable), (c) Kanji-2 (two syllables), and three types of non-verbal materials: (d) two-digit numeral, (e) musical note, (f) non-sense figure. Eight stimuli of each type were presented visually to 40 female subjects. It was shown that the performance changed with the types of materials in both retention tasks and that for some materials the retention of temporal order was better than that of spatial position, and for others, vice versa. In the temporal tasks, Hiragana attained the highest score, Kanji-1 the second and Kanji-2 the third. In contrast, the scores were reversed in the spatial tasks. The results suggested that the number of syllables was one of the important factors in temporal memory, though not necessarily in spatial one. The effect of other more subtle factors on retention such as visual tracking of temporal order and imprinting of visual image on the position of presentation was discussed.
Two experiments were designed based on Neisser's visual searching paradigm to compare visual, phonological and semantic processing times of two-character compound Kanji, the Japanese logographic script. In Exp. 1, four undergraduates were asked to scan 10-word lists visually, phonologically or semantically according to the task required to find out a target which is either identical with or similar to the word previously presented at the trial. The results indicated that visual processing is quickest, and phonological and semantic processings finish at the same time. In Exp. 2, two- and four-syllable words were used as stimuli. Five undergraduates' results suggested that the length of syllable has effect on neither phonological nor semantic processing time, and replicated the results of Exp. 1 suggesting that phonological and semantic processing finish at the same time.