The relation between concepts and their relative properties in semantic memory was investigated through priming effects in lexical decision task. In experiment I, subjects were 18 university students, and the relative adjectives (small/large) were presented as prime stimuli, followed by target stimuli composed of eight names (four small and four large animals) and eight nonwords. In experiment II, 16 subjects, 12 names (three small and three large fruits, three small and three large animals) and 12 nonwords were randomly presented as target stimuli, and other conditions were the same as experiment I. The results of two experiments showed that priming effects occurred by the relative adjectives as prime stimuli and that those effects in experiment II occurred individually in two categories. These findings suggested that the values of the relative properties in each concept were reflected in the strength of the direct relatedness between the concept and its properties and that the relative determination of their values depended on the superordinate category of the concept.
Eighteen colonies of Tsukuba High Emotional (THE) and 17 colonies of Low Emotional (TLE), each one composing of one female and two male rats, were reared for about two months, During this period, intruder tests and intra-colony observations were conducted once a week. Social behavior of colony residents was coded sequentially with 17 items in a microcomputer. Transitions in x2 tests were visualized in a tree structure. The sequential structures of social behavior were compared between two strains of rat in the course of social dominance organization. Although TLE males were more aggressive than THE males, dominant males of both strains had almost the same transition structure constructed of four common sequentially bound item-groups; a group (bite, lunge, aggressive groom), β group (on-top related items), γ group (chase, lateral display, boxing, on-back), and δ group (flight, retreat, defensive upright). β items were found to be sequentially located after bite in α group, δ group was disappeared with dominance organization. But there were some differences in inter- and intra-group structures between THE and TLE.
Three experiments were conducted from a behavioral perspective to investigate the determinants of inductive reasoning and to compare some methodological differences. The dependent variable used in these experiments was the threshold of confident response (TCR), which was defined as “the minimal sample size required to establish generalization from instances.” Experiment 1 examined the effects of population size on inductive reasoning, and the results from 35 college students showed that the TCR varied in proportion to the logarithm of population size. In Experiment 2, 30 subjects showed distinct sensitivity to both prior probability and base-rate. The results from 70 subjects who participated in Experiment 3 showed that the TCR was affected by its consequences (risk condition), and especially, that humans were sensitive to a loss situation. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of humans to statistical variables in inductive reasoning. Furthermore, methodological comparison indicated that the experimentally observed values of TCR were close to, but not as precise as the optimal values predicted by Bayes' model. On the other hand, the subjective TCR estimated by subjects was highly discrepant from the observed TCR. These findings suggest that various aspects of inductive reasoning can be fruitfully investigated not only from subjective estimations such as probability likelihood but also from an objective behavioral perspective.
Two experiments investigated the unbalanced polarity of response flexibility and cognitive preference between reflective and impulsive children. In experiment I, Cairns and Cammock's Matching Familiar Figures Test was readministered to 186 reflective and impulsive children in the first and fourth grades under one of three instructions: standard, accuracy-emphasized, or speed-emphasized instructions. Reflective children controlled their responses flexibly even if the task demand was opposite to their accustomed manners. But impulsive children could not accommodate their responses to the unaccustomed, accuracy-emphasized demand. In experiment II, 96 reflective and impulsive children in the first and fourth grades were asked about their expert, preferred task demand. Most reflective children answered that they were successful in the accuracy-demanded condition and preferred it. A half of impulsive children selected the speed-demanded condition; the others replied the same as the reflective.
This study was designed to explore two aspects (mother-father; woman-man) of Masculinity-Femininity in personality. Sixty-five middle school students, 150 high school students and 219 university students were asked to rate the desirability for them, their fathers and mothers, and society of each of 45 items comprising a questionnaire which described valid characteristics of these two aspects. Analysis of the results revealed that male subjects in all age groups seemed to feel that their fathers desired them to be more masculine (i. e., father and man) than they, themselves, desired. Those of high school and university age also seemed to feel that their mothers and fathers and society desired more motherliness of them than they, themselves, desired. Female high school and university subjects seemed to feel that their fathers and mothers desired much more femininity (mother and woman) and much less masculinity (father and man) than they, themselves, desired.
The present experiments investigated whether rats could selectively retain the nesessary spatial information and forget the unnesessary one in the radial arm maze task. In Experiment 1, rats were trained in a directed forgetting preparation in which the test choice was made following the R-cue and not following the F-cue. The performance on the probe tests, in which the test choice runs were given following the F-cue, was not affected by the F-cue and it was the same as on the R-cued trials. In Experiment 2, rats were trained in an intertrial-interference preparation in which R-cued and F-cued forced choices were run successively in a random order. In the test choice, rats obtained reinforcers if they avoided the R-cued arms. The analyses of performance of the test choices revealed that rats didn't utilize these instructional cues and consistently adopted a win-shift strategy. These findings suggest that the performance of the rats in the radial arm maze is highly inflexible.
Some researchers reported that subjects showed higher memory performance for atypical activities than scripted activities. This study aimed at determining which was more valid to explain such results, a “scriptpointer plus tag (SP+T)” hypothesis or a “resource allocation” explanation. Sixty undergraduate students listened to six scripted stories, three of which contained atypical activity in the middle of the serial position. After a 30 minite intervening task, they were unexpectedly asked to recall the stories. The SP+T hypothesis posits conceptual representation, and it predicts that the atypical activity is recalled at higher probability than the scripted activities in a story. On the other hand, the resource allocation explanation attributes memory performance to the amount of resources allocated at input, and it predicts that not only the atypical activity but also the scripted activity presented immediately after the atypical activity in a serial position is recalled at higher probability than the other scripted activities. The results were consistent with the SP+T hypothesis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the development of message-production in a referential communication paradigm. Children (3-12 years) were asked to mention the associative encodings of two kinds of figures and then verbally communicate the figures to the adult and peer listeners. Differences in content and mode of encoding under the associative and communicative conditions were analyzed. Five-year-olds showed more changes of mode than three-year-olds. As for the changes of content, however, five-year-olds showed less than the others did. It was concluded that in the development of message-production, the changes of mode began to appear simultaneously when the associative encodings of the figures became stable, and afterwards the changes of content appeared. Differences between the messages for the adult and peer listeners were also analyzed.