We investigated the recognition units of single-kanji and two-kanji-compound words in lexical access. In Experiment 1, we examined if the word recognition is facilitated in two conditions: (1) when the prime and the target words are identical and (2) when the prime and the target words contain an identical kanji. The priming effect was found only when the compound targets were identical to the prime. In Re-experiment 1, facilitation among kanji words was re-examined. The priming effect was obtained in the identical targets in both single and compound words. In Experiment 2, facilitation of word recognition among single kanji words was investigated. The results showed that facilitation was observed when the target was identical to the prime. Taken together, these results indicated that the kanji word recognition in lexical access is accomplished by word-sized units rather than by character-sized units. The findings were discussed with reference to the logogen model (Morton, 1977).
The link between dyad friendship pattern and properties of mutual understanding was explored using the seventh graders as subjects. In study 1, 42 mutual (MP) and 47 unilateral (UP) friendship pairs were selected. Each partner in each pair was asked to choose five dispositional traits which deemed to describe properly (1) self, (2) partner, and (3) self perceived by partner respectively from 30 traits. Five kinds of criteria to delineate mutual understanding were devised. MP, as opposed to UP, showed greater mutual understanding and recognized not only partners' attractive traits but receiving desirable estimation from partners. MP were also aware of sharing weak points. In Study 2, conducted four-months after Study 1, stable pairs (20 maintained mutual, MM) and vacillating ones (six growing mutual, GM; 11 decayed mutual, DM) were selected. For each of these pairs, the degree of fluctuations in mutual understanding was analyzed. Results showed DM became to see partner as having negative traits, besides to assume receiving negative evaluation from the partner, while MM sustained high degree of mutual understanding.
The quantitative evaluation of creative responses in TCT (Test for Creative Thinking) has elucidated various problems. In order to evaluate responses qualitatively, four basic categories were set up. They were constructed according to the degree of freedom of responses from the task-setting. The category, Td (Task-dependence) refers to responses that are entirely influenced by the task-setting. Tm (Task-modification) is for responses which are produced more flexibly than Td, but still influenced by the task-setting. Responses which are made by attending to only a part of the task-setting and neglecting the rest are judged Ho (Homomorphosis). Moreover, responses which are quite free from the task-setting are called He (Heteromorphosis), This He is thought to be the most creative response, and if it appears rarely. When 123 junior highschool students were tested using TCT, He responses appeared least, in four (only 20.3% of the subjects), while Td's were produced by 99.2% of the subjects. Ho's were lower than Tm's and Td's in frequency. However, the validity of these categories is still to be pursued.
An experiment was designed to examine whether output interference determines long-term recency effects. Sixty one undergraduates memorized six lists consisting of six noun pairs. Each presentation of to-be-remembered pairs followed and preceded arithmetic tasks. After presentation of each list, 42 of the subjects were presented one member of a pair in the list as a probe and were asked to recall the other member of the pair. Following the probe recall, they were asked to free recall the entire list. The other 19 subjects engaged in ordinal free recall tasks. Long-term recency effects disappeared both in the probe recall and in the free recall following the probe recall. Under both conditions recall priority of recency portion also disappeared. Under ordinal free recall condition, long-term recency effects occurred when the recall started from recency portion. These results indicate that recall priority of recency portion is necessary for the buildup of long-term recency effects, suggesting that output interference determines the effects.
To investigate the effects of actual relationship in dyads (strangers or acquaintances), interpersonal distance, and gender on nonverbal behavior, 32 (16 male and 16 female) undergraduates interact in same sex pair for 7 minutes. The nonverbal behavior investigated was look, eye contact, body orientation, head orientation, body lean, and utterance. The interactions were video-taped. Major findings: 1. Effects of the relationship were found in the frequency of look, duration, frequency, and mean duration of smile, and frequency of body lean (forward). 2. Effects of the interpersonal distance were found in the duration and frequency of smile, frequency of head orientation, duration and frequency of body lean (forward), and duration of eye contact and utterance. 3. Sex differences were found in the frequency of look, duration of smile, duration and frequency of body lean (forward), and duration of eye contact.
Four experiments were conducted to investigate how the prior processing of trait relevant information influenced upon the impression formation. Twenty university students participated in each experiment. First subjects performed a cognitive task in which they processed hostility (Exp. I, II) or friendliness (Exp. III, IV) related words, consciously (Exp. I, III) or subconsciously (Exp, II, IV). In another ostensibly unrelated task, subjects rated a stimulus person on several trait scales based on an ambiguous behavioral description, regarding to hostility (Exp. I, II) or friendliness (Exp. III, IV). It was shown that the more hostility words subjects processed either consciously or subconsciously, the more extreme and negative ratings they yielded. As for friendliness words, however, such effects were found only when they were subconsciously processed, not when they were consciously processed. It was argued that conscious processing was affected by positiveness or negativeness of trait words, but subconscious processing was not.
On the basis of a description by Murayama and Nojima (1977), a scale was constructed to measure the developmental phase of the encounter group process. Administered to 105 encounter group facilitators. Principal component analysis of the data resulted in the identification of one factor. The evaluation of a group as a whole and the rating of each item were found to be consistent. The rating of a high evaluated group was higher than that of a low evaluated group. These results confirmed the validity of the scale. The ratings by two judges of the same group were found to be significantly correlated. A test-retest (one year later) analysis yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.87, thus confirming the reliability of the scale.
Two experiments were conducted on personal space as a function of eye-contact (Exp. I) and spatial arrangements of a group (Exp. II). In experiment I, interpersonal distances were measured using 30 female students in three eye-contact conditions in which subjects wore semi-dark sunglasses, mirror glasses or no glasses. In experiment II, thirty-six female students served as subjects, and three subjects formed a group and stood abreast (arrangement A), then the middle person took one step forward or backward (B, C) against an approaching male stranger. The stop-distance technique was used for both experiments. (1) As the intensity of eye-contact was reduced, smaller personal space was required for subjects to feel comfortable. (2) Significantly larger space was required for subjects who stood outside (A, B) of group-shared space than inside (C).
An experiment was performed to examine the effects of the size of target and noise letters on selective identification of a target letter. Twelve undergraduate students were required to identify a target letter on a visual display which presents a target letter alone or a target letter flanked by two noise letters. The reaction time of pressing buttons to the target letter was measured under combined conditions of size of target and noise letters. The large target letter was identified faster than the small one whether it was accompanied by noise letters or not. The large noise letters exerted stronger effects on the identification of a target letter than the small one. The rusults agreed with the prediction based on the assertion by Eriksen and Schultz (1979). Farther, it was found that the effects of size of letters varied according to the relation between target letters and noise letters and to the similarity of a target letter to noise letters.
Two experiments were designed to examine the effect of orthographic difference between Kanji and Kana word on memory. The experiments were carried out in incidental memory paradigms, where high and low imagery words without any homonyms were used as stimuli. In Exp. I, subjects were instructed to perform a phonological orienting task, then they were forced to take an unexpected memory test. Number of correct free recall for low imagery words was larger in Kanji than in Kana. In Exp. II, however, where subjects were instructed to perform a semantic orienting task, this effect was disappeared. These results were interpreted in terms of semantic encoding.