The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the goal attainment difficulty upon interpersonal attraction for the partner. Eighty female undergraduates participated the experiment. They were given tasks with one of four different goal attainment level (very easy, easy, difficult, and very difficult). Each subject solved it with partners of one of three ability levels (superior, similar, inferior to the subject). After the completion of the task, all subjects were requested to evaluate the three partners' instrumental and emotional attractiveness. The main results were as follows: (1) The subjects evaluated the more capable partner as more attractive on the instrumental attraction dimension. (2) The subjects in easy and difficult goal attainment conditions evaluated the superior partner as most attractive on the emotional attraction dimension. While the subjects in very easy and very difficult goal conditions evaluated the similar partner as most attractive on that dimension. These results were discussed in terms of the relationship between the reward value of interaction partner and the task environment.
This study investigated the visual information processing of letters (Japanese characters: Kanas) and numerals. In Experiments 1 and 2, 32 Japanese undergraduate and graduate students participated in a target-classification task. Subjects were required to classify a central target stimulus which was flanked horizontally and symmetrically by two noise stimuli. The reaction time of classifying the target was measured as a function of stimulus type (letters vs. numerals) and noise condition. The results of the two experiments showed the different patterns of noise effects on target classification between letters and numerals. In case of two kinds of Japanese characters: Hiragana and Katakana, the noises influenced stimulus processing stage more than response processing. But on the other hand in case of Arabic and Chinese numerals, the noises influenced only the response processing stage. This finding suggests that the process of identifying letters is different from that of numerals.
As weight is invisible, some judgmental criteria are needed in judging weight. An experiment was carried out using the second, forth, sixth, eighth graders and college students to reveal (1) what weights positions make subjects more errors in judgment of weights addition and (2) what relationships will be found between the judgments and judgmental criteria. Subjects were engaged in the tasks to judge weights addition in two conditions, height of weights and relative positions, and were asked the judgmental criteria in two situations, visual exteroceptive and realistic proprioceptive situations. Results showed clearly the developmental changes. The fourth graders dominatly produced errors in height of weights conditions and tended to depend on the criteria in realistic situations. In the contrast to this, the eighth graders committed errors in relative differences of weights positions and depended on the criteria in visual situations as well as realistic ones. Sex differences were also observed in terms of criteria. No relations between the judgments and judgmental criteria was found in girls' judgments of weights additions.
Two inbred strains of Tsukuba Emotionality Rat (THE and TLE) and four hybrids derived from them were observed for ambulatory response in a novel environment as a measure of emotionality. The Runway Test (modified “timidity test”) was run for successive three days. Mean transformed (square root) scores of ambulation for generation were subjected to Mendelian cross analysis. Total ambulation scores showed significant additive genetic effect, maternal effect and environmental effect. Directional dominance toward low level of response was present only for males. Daily ambulation scores showed changes in the genetic architecture over three days and the difference between males and females. For females, directional dominance occurred toward low level on Day 1, toward high level on Day 3, but no directional dominance was observed on Day 2, Males' directional dominance toward low level, on the other hand, declined with days. These findings on the genetic architecture of emotionality were discussed with reference to evolutionary adaptation.
This study was to examine the changes of altruistic responses through observational learning (OL) in elementary school children (4th graders) with the conditions of the different viewpoints and observers' traits. The OL was the symbolic modeling of altruistic behavior by presentation of pictures with narration. All the stories had the same situation, but differed whether the actor behaved himself in an altruistic fashion to the object, or not. Observers' viewpoints were determined by the instruction: they were told to observe the story as if they were one of the characters and to pay attention to emotional responses or behavior of the character. The emphasis of each story corresponded to the viewpoint. Out of these eight combined experimental conditions six were performed. Traits were concerned with observers' impression, empathy, and evaluation of the story. The response measure was the change of rating between pre- and post- questionnaires through observation. The effect of OL was higher significantly when the viewpoint directed to the characters' emotion. Observers who reacted strongly to empathy and impression items showed higher altruistic changes.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of types of sentence frame on elaboration in incidental memory. Subjects were asked to rate whether the target word would fitinto sentence frame with five point scales followed by an unexpected free recall test. In Experiment I, three types of sentence frame (CA, CN and II) were used. The target words fitted into CA and CN sentence frames, but did not into II ones. In a CA sentence frame, two associates of the target word were involved, whereas in a CN one were not. CA and CN sentence frames led to a better recall than II ones, but the difference between the former two sentence frames was not observed. In Experiment II, three types of sentence frames were used: Semantic and Syntactic Congruous (CC) Semantic Incongruous and Syntactic Congruous (CI) and Semantic and Syntactic Incongruous (II). CC and CI sentence frames led to a better recall than II, but the difference between the former two sentence frames was not observed.
The purpose of the present experiment was to compare the performance of rats in a win-shift task and a win-stay task in a radial arm maze. To this end, three experiments were conducted using a variety of procedures. In general, the win-shift task required the rats to choose the unvisited arms and the win-stay task required the rats to return the visited arms. In Experiment 1, a free-choice memory recognition procedure was used, and in Experiments 2 and 3, a forcedchoice memory recognition procedure was used. All three experiments showed that in the win-shift task, rats rapidly learned the task and performed well whereas in the win-stay task, the rats consistently showed a chance-level performance despite of the prolonged trainings. In addition to these findings, when the tasks were reverse (i.e. from the win-shift to the win-stay, and vice versa), the rats still showed a response strategy previously adopted (Experiment 3). These findings seem to be important in considering the characteristics of spatial memory in rats.
A device for recording and encoding voice stimuli was developed with the NEC-PC 9801 micro computer. Sampling times are 100μs (10kHz), and one recording time can be lasted up to 15s. The sound stimuli are monitored on the computer display. These stimuli could be edited directly by the cursor and saved onto a floppy disk. A multi purpose program was also developed for this apparatus. This program allows the user to manipulate the stimuli for various auditory experiments such as dichotic listening tests etc.
The recent development of psychology in the People's Republic of China is reviewed in some important areas. The foundations of Chinese psychology is traced back to Chinese ancient philosophy and modern Marxist ideology. The difficulty encountered in the building of a new psychology as well as some exemplary research topics are described. Special emphasis is made on the psychological research related to the one-child family problem. A final discussion is on the relation of psychology to China's four Modernizations.