The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between intolerance of ambiguity and political interest and political attitudes, Twenty-four items of a political attitudes scale in a “catchphrase” format, 10 items of a scale measuring intolerance of ambiguity and a 12-item political interest scale were prepared and administered to 292 university students living in Shizuoka, Japan. The main results showed that: (1) greater tolerance of ambiguity was observed in subjects with the most innovative political attitudes as compared to both moderate and conservative subjects; (2) among male subjects, conservatives were more tolerant of ambiguity than moderates, but conservatives were most intolerant of ambiguity across all political-attitude groups in females; and, (3) there was a curvilinear trend between political attitudes and political interest in males while a linear relationship was observed in females. These results showed the importance of sex-related factors when considering the nature of the relationships between personality variables, political interest, and political attitudes.
In this study, emotional meanings associated with hand movements were investigated. All hand movements were performed by a female subject who was asked to use her right hand in such a way as to exclude cues from other forms of bodily communication such as those arising from facial expressions, gestures and various body postures. Seven kinetic variables relevant to hand movements were identified and 708 stimulus pictures were developed and presented to 115 male and 105 female subjects for evaluation using a 28 affect adjective check list. A varimax rotated factor analysis applied to the data yielded three factors for each sex as follows: (1) positive affect, (2) negative affect and (3) arousal. For female subjects, a fourth factor -“surprise”- was also identified. Examination of factor scores suggested that positive affect was related to an outside location of the arm, or upper spatial orientation, and to extension of the fingers. In contrast, negative affect was associated with an inside location of the arm and a clenched fist. Arousal was found to be related to palmar flexion and a clenched fist directed to the outside. Finger abduction and the elbow bent toward the outside were associated with the factor of “surprise” in females.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiences of musical instruments influence on discrimination of two-pure-tone simultaneous intervals. Fifteen experienced and 14 inexperienced subjects were asked to compare a standard stimulus with a comparison stimulus whose lower tone was varied from -4 Hz to +4 Hz, and to judge whether they were same or different. One single tone and four two-pure-tone simultaneous intervals, major second, major third, perfect fifth, and major seventh were used as stimuli. The results showed that the experienced subjects were generally more accurate and quicker in the task than the inexperienced subjects. It was suggested that a schema for discrimination of two-pure-tone simultaneous intervals was formed by exercises on musical instruments, and that the inexperienced subjects also had the schema to some extent.
First, all subjects were shown the process of escape behavior of other four subjects (comrades) concentrating to one of five routes, then they were told that they should decide whether to change escape route or persist to that route. During observation of comrades' behavior, the subjects were free to decide whether to change the route or not. The results indicated that conformity levels fluctuated according to the feedback from the others' behavior. This fluctuation was explained using a Markov model. According to this model, the transitional probability, which consists of that factors of conformity, fixation and preference, depend on information concerning others' behavior were made available.
The purpose was to reveal a set of conversation rule and to examine the effect of social context on the importance of the rule, We collected 51 items concerning conversation rule from 29 male and female undergraduates. Another 128 male and female undergraduates were asked to rate the importance of each item in given social contexts. We manipulated three factors of (a) goal orientation in conversation, (b) intimacy of a dyadic relationship, and (c) combination of sex, in the descriptions of the social contexts. Factor analysis of the rating scores led to identification of six factors of conversation rule: 1) acceptance rule, 2) rule for partner, 3) rule for accomplishment of speech, 4) rule for intention of speech, 5) emotion-directed expression rule, 6) comprehension-directed expression rule. The results of ANOVA indicated that the importance of each factor varies with social context.
From the viewpoints of relative deprivation and social comparison jealousy, this article reports on a study that investigated the effects of choice on subsequent appropriate feeling and appreciation for another person who is superior to subjects in the same or different field. A 2×2 betweengroups design was used to determine the effects of choice (present or absent) and field (same or different). Individual differences were assessed by using three scales: Self-Esteem, Self-Monitoring, and Social Desirability. Forty-one male subjects participated in a task and received negative feedback, and then evaluated a superior on both pencil and paper and bogus-pipeline(BPL)measures. Most importantly a significant Choice×SE interaction was obtained on BPL: It means that through experiencing choice the high Self-Esteem subjects can maintain appropriate feeling and appreciation even on BPL although some self-presentation is inevitable.
The purpose of this study is to construct Sensation Seeking Scale-Abstract Expression (SSS-AE), consisting of 15 items. All items were described in relatively abstract terms. Data were collected from Japanese college students (246 males and 121 females). The total SSS-AE scores had positive correlation with the general factor of sensation seeking. This confirms the validity of the SSS-AE proposed in this study. From the factor analysis of the items, three factors were extracted: Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS), Disinhibition (Dis), and Experience Seeking (ES). But Boredom Susceptibility (BS) was not confirmed. These results were discussed in comparison with the factors reported by Zuckerman. Males showed higher ES scores than females, but females showed higher Dis scores than males.
One hundred and twenty-five freshmen in an education/psychology department t. (56 males and 69 females) and 63 psychology major juniors of the same department. (27 males and 36 females) were administered an identity dimension (ID) scale and a questionnaire on crises and commitments in 11 areas during June 1984 Surveys were repeated with these subjects on February and June '85, and February '86. The principal results were as follows: (a) the number of high ID score stud ents increased in junior and senior years; (b) ID scores were distributed in a two peaked form at graduation; (c) female subjects' levels of crises with ‘same-sex friends’, ‘opposite-sex friends’, and on ‘study’ decreased corresponding with the increase of ID scores; male subjects' levels of crises with ‘opposite-sex friends’ and on ‘desirable life styles and values’ increased corresponding with the decrease of ID scores.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of the intensity of unstable status structures on the powerholders' power maintaining tendency. In advance aptitude test was administered to the subjects (24 male undergraduates). Each subjects was led to believe that he was screened and supervised four performing groups as a powerholder (Top-leader). Each subjects was also assigned to either the status change condition (12 males) or the non status change condition (12 males). The following results were obtained. Compared to the powerholders under the non status change condition, the powerholders under the status change condition (1) evaluated less subleaders' contributions to the high performance group, (2) gave more difficult tasks to the high performance group. These results were compared with the study by this author (1987) and discussed in terms of the relation between the power maintaining tendency and intensity of unstable status structures.
The present study was designed to investigate the possible deficits in the place learning on the 8-arm radial maze in aged rats. In this task, reward was given in the 4 predetermined arms. Aged rats (27 months old, N=7) acquired this task more slowly than young rats (12 months old, N=11), and didn't reach to the performance level of the young rats within 80 training trials. Analysis of error choices revealed that the aged animals first entered in the unbaited arms more of tenly than the young rats, whereas there was no difference in the number of re-entered choices to the baited and unbaited arms between the aged and young animals. Therefore, it was concluded that learning deficits in aged rats were attributed to deficits in the reference memory but not in the working memory.