The purpose of this study was to explore changes in body sensation through muscular relaxation by means of measurement of tactile two-point limen. This study comprised two experiments. The first experiment, in which twenty female college students participated, was carried out to examine the effect of relaxation on two-point limen, and the relationship between the acceptance of relaxation and two-point limen. The second experiment involved three physically handicapped children with cerebral palsy and hemiplegia. To determine whether they would show a decrease in two-point limen in the shoulders and forearms as a function of improvement of relaxation, they were given a week long intensive Motor Action Training, which was administered by means of the relaxation and movement training method established by Naruse. The results showed that the two-point limen decreased remarkably for both normal adult subjects and physically handicapped subjects as they relaxed muscular tension. Concerning the acceptance of relaxation, the high acceptance group showed a large decrease in the two-point limen, whereas the low acceptance group did not show any change.
According to the two factor theory of leadership, leaders were instructed to behave both gently and strictly. However, how can be achieved such behavior? Here, a solution to this problem is suggested by an analysis of subordinates' person perception. Yamada (1987) analyzed the data of PM leadership surveys, and found three factors; Maintenance [M.] (corresponds to “Consideration” in the Ohio Study) Planning (Initiating Structure), and Pressure (Production Emphasis). It was found that High Planning supported the independence of M. from Pressure. The purpose of this experimental study was to test the effect of Planning behavior on cognitive structure. Sixty-four female subjects performed a maze task using computer simulation. In the high Planning condition, the leader displayed direction signs, whereas no sign was displayed in the low Planning condition. Each condition was further subdivided into two Pressure conditions (High or low) by the amount of linguistic behavior. The result of the survey data was supported. M. cognition decreased by increasing Pressure cognition in the low Planning condition, but no correlation was found between M. and Pressure in the High Planning condition.
This study examined the relationship of a person's motives for selt-disclosure and degree of self-disclosure to the congruency of personality judgment by the discloser and recipient. The subjects used were 76 pairs of close friends, members in each pair being of the same sex. Personality judgments of disclosers were executed by the disclosers themselves as well as the recipients; and disclosers were also asked to fill out (SMI) and (JSDQ). Results demonstrated that (JSDQ) had no relation to the congruency of personality judgments, but the motives had. In particular, persons who were apt to disclose based on mostly the emotional motive had the minimum coneruencies on their personality judgment by disclosers and recipients.
This study aimed at to investigate the combined effects of self-reinforcement (SR) and external-reinforcement (ER) on a matching-to-sample learning task. Four colored cards with four different marks (20, 10, 0, -10) were employed. Subjects of 27 college students were divided into three groups; SR, ER, and SR-ER groups, and they were requested to choose correct cards to score 20 marks in each trial. Subjects in SR and SR-ER groups were required to express their degrees of confidence by exhibiting either one, two or three chips of token accordingly. Following results were obtained. First, reinforcing powers were greater under both SR and SR-ER conditions than ER condition. Second, SR-ER group manifested a remarkably higher learning effect compared to SR group. This is interpreted as that the former established a sort of self-assurance due to ER contingency during this learning condition. Finally, the number of chips SR and SR-ER groups presented corresponded to the hitting rate of marks between n and n+1 trials.
The present study investigated the structure of self-image based upon interrelations among statements collected by means of T. S. T. or so-called the WAI (Who am I?) technique. The WAI is a technique for investigating self-attitude or self-image, in which each subject writes 20 statements responding to a question “Who am I?” After responding to the WAI, 50 university students participated in an experiment, in which each subject evaluated the strength of interrelations among statements by classification and paired-judgements, judged the meaning of each statement using 20 common items, and responded to questions about the results of the preceding sessions in the experiment. The structure of self-image of each subject was obtained by using cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling techniques. The structure common to all subjects was obtained by analysing the 20 common items with INDSCAL. The results revealed that the individual structures can be grasped by these methods and that the common structure has four dimensions, i.e., dimensions of General Evaluation, Physical Body, Internal versus External Issues, and Friendship.
The Twenty Statement Test (TST) was administered to four groups of subjects consisting of fifth graders in an elementary school, second graders in a junior high school, senior high school and university. In addition to the traditional analysis of TST in which the major emphasis is on content aspects of mode of self with respect to elementary contents of self-descriptions, further analysis was undertaken in terms of structural aspects of mode of self by focusing on the relation of the self with the elementary contents of self-descriptions. The results of the content-oriented analysis conformed in general to those reported by other investigators in the past. The structurally-oriented analysis indicated a decrease in descriptions of the relationship of the self to things, events and persons in one's environment and an increase in these aspects with respect to one's own traits. It was suggested that by employing both these analytic procedures, an enhanced understanding of self-concept might be facilitated.
This study was conducted to explore that phase of coalition bargaining in which cooperative motivation is dominant. Subjects were 198 male undergraduate students divided into 66 groups of three members each. Each subject was confronted with the requirement of forming a coalition with another member of the triad. To manipulate the strength of cooperative motivation, the degree of importance for succeeding in forming a coalition and the level of anxiety associated with losing a coalition were varied. Each subject was asked to bargain in such a way as to maximize his share of the reward by forming a coalition with another member of the triad. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) as importance for succeeding in forming a coalition and anxiety associated with losing a coalition increased, subjects' motivation became more cooperative in nature; (2) reinforcing cooperative motivation increased the probability that subjects would make concessions in bargaining; and, (3) making concessions was extremely effective as a strategy for forming coalitions. However, the magnitude of concessions was not always in proportion to the strength of cooperative motivation. It was suggested, in summary, that further research is necessary to delineate the factors which facilitate or constrain a person's willingness to make concessions in such situations.
In order to observe oculomotor responses to moving objects in infants and the profoundly retarded, a control system of moving objects was developed. The system consists of two parts, the one is to control movement, while the other is to display stimuli. The movement control part is made of a microcomputer, a pulse motor, and a rail, which guides a stimulus carrier with slight friction. The pulse motor rotates 1.8°, according to the input of one pulse. Therefore, the microcomputer can control the velocity of movement of a heavy object exactly. The microcomputer detects the position of a stimulus carrier, counting the number of pulses and receiving signals from switches attached to the rail. The stimuli displaying part controls lighting with respect to the position of a stimulus carrier. Applying this system to a profoundly retarded subject, whose DA was three months, smooth pursuit oculomotor responses at the same velocity as the stimulus were observed in EOG recordings. Measurement of duration of those responses was achieved.
This experiment tested subjects' memory for verbal (Kanji and Kana) and figural displays by using a reaction time procedure. There were three conditions: stimulus (figure, Kanji, Kana), configuration (1-dimension, 2-dimensions), and type (identity, transformed, different). After a 2-dimensional array of three stimulus components was presented as an original stimulus, subjects were presented with one of six (2 configurations×3 types) comparison arrays. Subject's task was to verify that the comparison array contained the same elements as the original stimulus. The factor of the configuration had a significant effect on RTs for the figural stimulus, but not for the verbal stimulus. The transformed array had significant effects for both figural and verbal stimuli except for the figural stimulus in 1-dimension condition. There was no difference between Kanji and Kana in all of the conditions. The results demonstrated that short-term verbal representations are both sequentially and spatially constrained, and that representations of figures preserve the spatial relationships of components and are not so constrained by sequential ordering. The data are discussed in terms of a dual-coding model.