Two experiments were carried out to clarify how instantiating informations were used when subjects read the natural Japanese sentences. In Experiment 1, two sentences in anaphoric relation; the category term in the first sentence followed by the instance term in the second, were shown on CRT. And comprehension times of the second sentences were measured using 68 students. There were no facilitation shown by instantiation. So coping with category terms in context isn't equal to instantiation of categories. It was shown that contexts with instantiating informations were used only in backward inferences in integrating instances with contexts. In Experiment 2, two sentences; two instance terms in the first sentence followed by the category term in the second, were shown. And comprehension times of the second sentences were measured using 32 subjects. It was found that instantiating information was used only at selection process, exploring antecedent words. In conclusion referential knowledge wasn't used as a frame of comprehendirg entences.
The effects of evoked thermal imagery on cutaneous thermal perception an change in skin temperature were examined. Thirty-two subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following four conditions: warm imagery, cold imagery, neutral imagery and no-imagery. The main results were as follows: first, the interference with thermal perception either by warm or cold imagery was observed. Cold imagery subjects estimated the stimuli to be warmer than neutral imagery subjects. However, under the high temperature condition they estimated the stimuli lower than the stimuli temperature. As to the perception expand, there was no difference between warm and cold imagery conditions. Second, warm imagery produced physically higher skin temperatures than cold imagery. These results indicated that the effect of imagery activity on the subjects' perception of thermal stimuli does not correspond to the actual physiological change in skin temperature. Finally, the dual nature of the effects of thermal imagery was discussed in terms of imagery modality.
Presses on left and right buttons by undergraduate students occasionally produced points exchangeable for money, according to a multiple random-ratio randominterval schedule. During interruptions in the schedule, the subjects were required to fill out sentence-completion guess sheets about how they should press the buttons to gain the points available. Three of six subjects were instructed about the rules of button pressing (the instructed group), whereas the others received no instructions but their guesses were shaped with differential points also worth money (the shaped group). The schedule was changed so that button pressing relying on the instructed or shaped rules substantially decreased the available points in the contact condition but not in the no-contact condition. A schedule change in the no-contact condition produced no performance change in either groups. In the contact condition, shaped group subjects showed a performance change, whereas instructed group subjects did not until they temporarily encountered an extinction schedule. When the no-contact condition was reintroduced, sensitive responding occurred in the shaped group but not in the instructed group suggesting that prior experience in the contact condition increased the schedule sensitivity of the shaped group. The findings clearly demonstrated that responding was more sensitive to schedule changes when the rules were shaped than when they were instructed.
Transformational structures of linear binary patterns and their similarity judgment, which have been extensively studied from the viewpoint of Imai's transformational structure theory, were analysed mathematically with the aid of the theory of groups in order to clarify the mathematical basis of the transformational structure theory. Main findings are as follows. 1. Each of the basic cognitive transformations should be considered as a transformation (or permutation) group rather than a single transformation. The mirror image M, phase P and value-reversal R. transformations are such examples. 2. The transformation group classifies configurations, and has the following properties which are convenient for similarity cognition of patterns: symmetry of transformability, non-divergency of configurations produced and availability of stepwise transformation by heuristic strategies. 3. We can define the inter-configurational transformation structure of configuration pairs by the transformation group and predict their similarity order, in parallel with the existing transformational structure theory.
This study was conducted to investigate the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in Japanese schoohaged children. In Study 1, the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale for children developed by Kazdin, French, Unis, Esveldt-Dawsan, and Sherick (1983) was constructed. Seventeen original items were translated into Japanese and they were administrated to 495 fifthand sixth-graders. All of the items could be included to the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale. The reliability and validity was examined. In Study 2, the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in children were investigated. The causal attribution questionnaire developed by Higuchi, Kambare, and Otsuka (1983) and the hopelessness scale developed by Study 1 were administrated to 188 sixth-graders. Children with high scores in hopelessness scale significantly attributed negative events to much more effort factor than children with low scores. It supports neither the reformulated learned helplessness model nor the causal attribution theory of achievement motivation. It was explained mainly from points of self-serving attribution, cultural difference, and social desirability. Some questions were discussed for developing studies on depression and causal attribution in Japan.
Since many things may be subjectively judged as partially true or partially false rather than absolutely true or false, it is important to investigate how the human integrates fuzzy logical informations. Three rules of conjunction in fuzzy logic, that is, minimum rule, multiplying rule, and averaging rule were compared. Thirty subjects judged the truthfulness of single propositions and conjunctions of two to five propositions. The results showed that the subjectively judged truthfulness of the conjunction was closest to the minimum value of the truthfulness of the component propositions, that is, the minimum rule provided the best fit to the data for every conjunctions. However, it is suggested that the human is sensitive to the information from all of the propositions in the conjunction as predicted from the multiplying rule, because the subjectively judged truthfulness of the conjunction tended to become smaller than the minimum value.
This study was designed to demonstrate the need for caution in using the Rep test as an instrument for measuring the personality trait known as “cognitive complexity”, given that situational factors prevailing at the time of testing can easily influence cognitive complexity scores. Forty-nine female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a short rating time or long rating time group. Subjects in the short time group were instructed to complete the Rep test as quickly as possible while those in the long time group were allowed to take as much time as necessary to complete their ratings. The results indicated that cognitive complexity scores of the short rating time group were lower than those of the long rating time group, thus confirming the susceptibility of these scores to situational factors at the time of testing. However, the results also suggested that subjects emphasized the evaluative dimension during the first stage and the remaining dimensions during the second stage of social judgment processing. This suggested that the Rep test could play an important role in the development of stage models of person perception and that “cognitive complexity” could be approached from the perspective of “social cognition” research.
Following considerations for some general issues of ERP research on human information processing, recent advances in this field are elaborated by reviewing the literature on selective attention. Sections in this review deal with following subjects: (1) two landmark contributions of Hillyard, Hink, Schwent, & Picton (1973) and Näätänen, Gaillard, & Mäntysalo (1978); (2) the endogenous, attention-related negativity (“Nd” wave), which is considered to consist of three possible components, a modalityspecific Nd, a centrally-maximal, controlled-search negativity, and a frontally-focused Nd; (3) the spatial attention effects on the exogenous components in visual and somatosensory modalities; and (4) the organizations of stimulus selection processes indicated by the latency and interrelations between those ERP components.