This study examined the effect of word order in constructing mental models from spatial descriptions, In Experiment 1, 24 graduate and undergraduate students read three sentences in length of spatial descriptions and verified locatiye diagrams. Experimental factors were word order and propositional combinations. In single sentence processing, reading times (RTs) of Subject-Location-Verb (SLV) word order condition were longer than RTs of Location-Subject-Verb (LSV) condition, In the integration process, the effect of propositional combinations (reflected in RTs of the second sentence) were found only in the LSV condition. To clarify the intergration process, the word order of the second sentence was changed in Experiment 2. Compared with the result of Experiment 1 (with both the first and the second sentence SLV), RTs of the second SLV sentence (with the first LSV) were reduced. These results support the hypothesis that the integration process is carried out by on-line processing, and that subjects use not only proposional representations of text, which contain logical relations of terms, but also surface structure information such as word order in constructing mental models.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the part-whole hierarchical organization of scene concepts. In each experiment, 16 subjects viewed a sentence “A is in B” and decided whether the scene A was a part of the scene B. The words used in Experiment 2 were less ambiguous than those used in Experiment 1. The ratio of correct responses and the reaction times from both of the experiments revealed that the part-whole hierarchy of scene concepts were different from concrete-abstract hierarchies of biological or object concepts in the following two respects. (1) The subjects' judgments did not necessarily follow a general principle of transitivity. That is, even if global-middle, and middle-local relationships were accepted, the relationship between global and local concepts was not always accepted, (2) The higher (more global) the level of concepts, the more fuzzy was the relationship between the concepts in hierarchy. These results were discussed in terms of the inherent concreteness of our knowledge about scenes.
This paper focuses on emblematic gesture and manipulation of body movements. Subjects viewed from the dorsal perspective the body movements displayed by two actors/actresses. These movements depicted the ten emotions of affection, joy, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, anticipation, anger, contempt and acceptance. Three-mode factor analyses were applied to the data. Three factors were found in the emotion-mode, three in the scene-mode, and two factors in the subjects-mode. The emotion-mode and scene-mode factors were found to correspond to a high degree. Factor I was interpreted as an acceptance dimension, including affection, joy, anticipation and acceptance. The typical emblematic gestures were displayed with a standing posture and advanced movement, Factor II was interpreted as an avoidance dimension, including surprise, fear and sadness. The typical emblematic gestures were divided into two movements; regressive and “shrinking down”. In addition, self-attached manipulations were typical expressions of sadness. Factor III was interpreted as a rejection dimension, including disgust, anger and contempt. Considerable body manipulation was used to express these emotional categories. Core-matrix and subjects' factor scores were correlated with a response tendency in terms of subjects' evaluations rather than their accuracy of judgment.
Thirty-one pupils at elementary schools (ages between six years and nine month and 12 years and two months) and seven adults were tasted using the method developed by Yamamoto and Tatsuno (1984) to investigate the development of spatial ability in the early blinds. The subjects walked, with the guidance of the experimenter, on a path which had 45, 90, or 135 degree right or left angle turn at its middle point. At the end point of each path, the subjects walked back alone to find the starting point of the path. The trials were repeated 12 times. The adult group made less angular error in the direction of movement when they walked back alone, though other performance measures scarcely showed any indications of development of the ability. The subjects' verbal reports concerning their problem solving methods revealed that many of them were using the starting point as an anchor while they were walking. The data obtained were evaluated with reference to the earlier data for the sighted [Yamamoto & Tatsuno's (1984) data]. Some points of agreement and disagreement with the argument of put forward by Juurmaa (1973) and the present results concerning the development of spatial ability, were also discussed.
In three shuttlebox experiments, goldfish were given a choice between signaled shocks in the CS compartment and unsignaled ones in the other, In Experiment I, 48 goldfish were given signaled shocks with either 1, 2, 4, or 8s ISI (CS duration) in the CS compartment. The asymptotic level of preference for signaled shock (PSS) was an inverted-U function of the ISI (CS duration). In Experiment II, 50 goldfish were given signaled shocks with either 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8s ISI, and with 8s CS duration in the CS compartments The asymptotic level of PSS was a linear function of the ISI, and extending the CS after the US offset was found to block PSS. In Experiment III, 30 goldfish were given signaled shocks with either 2, 4, or 8s ISI, and with 2s CS duration in the CS compartment. Asymptotically PSS was eliminated with such a brief CS-US gap as 2s. The contextual-fear hypothesis based on Wagner's SOP model could account for these results more precisely than any other major PSS hypotheses.
Slow eye movements (SEMs) were analyzed in 28 young adult females during daytime sleep. Data from transitional periods of each EEG stage were obtained by accumulating its epoch series synchronized to the onset or termination of the other stages. Sleepiness was reported by the subject by pressing a button switch. SEMs were prominent at the transitional period of stage W approaching the onset of stage 1 (sleep tendency), They declined with deepening of sleep at the transitional periods of EEG stages 22 and 2, and disappeared completely during slow wave sleep (SWS) periods. The recovery of SEMs occurred towards awakening at every EEG transitional period except for SS. The individual difference in the appearance of SEMs was partly explained by a positive correlation with stage 3 latency: the longer the latency was, the larger the mean SEMs. Perceived sleepiness increased in proportion to SEMs during the entry and reentry periods to sleep. These results suggest that SEMs are strongly associated with a wakesleep transition.
This study attempted to clarify the relationship between self-esteem and anthrophobic-tendency in normal adolescents. Two questionnaires measuring self-esteem and anthrophobic-tendency were administered to junior and senior high school students, and college students. The results show that for the junior high school and college students, self-esteem and anthrophohic-tendency correlated negatively, while there was an uncorrelativeness for the senior high school students. During senior high school age, they tend to estimate themselves in terms of their own standards rather than others', which result in little correlations between self-esteem and anthrophobictendency. The conflict between one's autistic tendency and interpersonal relations tends to lead to the anthroohobic-tendency.
Two experiments were conducted to assess the usefulness of repeated questionings for the psychophysiological detection of deception. Twenty-four female subjects were instructed to conceal the critical item which they had previously selected, and their skin conductance response (SCR) was simultaneously recorded. In Experiment 1, the amplitudes of SCR to both critical and noncritical items tended to decrease. However, responses to the critical item was consisitently larger than that to other noncritical ones during the total of nine presentations in this series where the critical item was pseud-randomly inserted among the four non-critical items. In Experiment 2, the difference of SCR to the critical and noncritical items was enhanced compared with Experiment 1 at the first exposure in three successive presentations, though this difference was diminished at the following 2nd and 3rd presentations. These results suggest that the successive presentations of stimulus under the detection of deception would be effective to discriminate the responses to critical item from noncritical items, and they are discussed in terms of stimulus significance.
The present study investigated the influence of active or passive self-esteem motive (SEM) on the process of self-image bias arousal in person perception. Subjects were 45 female college students and each were assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (a) active SEM aroused (ACTIVE), (b) passive SEM aroused (PASSIVE), (c) either SEM not aroused (CONTROL). The change in frequency of using self-desirable and self-undesirable dimensions in the descriptions of stimulus person's personality was examined among three conditions: the frequency before SEM being aroused was subtracted from the frequency after SEM being aroused. The results showed that the frequency of using self-desirable dimensions was not increased in ACTIVE condition compared with those in the other two conditions. On the other hand, the frequency of using self-undesirable dimensions was significantly decreased in PASSIVE condition than those in the others. These results suggested that there was self-image bias which decreased the importance of self-undesirable dimensions in person perception when the passive SEM was aroused.