The present goldfish experiments in the shuttlebox were attempted to separate and test the feedback (informational) and safety-signal (fear inhibition) hypotheses, both of which may account for the reinforcing effects of the FS in avoidance conditioning. In Experiment I, four groups of goldfish (N=48) were trained with (or without) response contingent FS and with (or without) shock contingent FS in a Sidman avoidance schedule (S-S=R-S=30s). The shock contingent FS tended to facilitate acquisition only in the response measure. The response contingent FS, on the other hand, facilitated acquisition only in the US measure. In Experiment II, four groups of goldfish (N=48) were trained with (or without) response contingent FS and with a fixed (30 s) or variable (15-45 s) R-S interval in a Sidman avoidance schedule (S-S=30 s). The results showed that, in both response and US measures, the FS facilitated avoidance acquisition, whereas variable R-S deteriorated it. As a whole, the results of the present experiments were considered to support the safety-signal (fear inhibition) hypothesis.
In order to clarify the differences between the visual and the auditory memories and the interference effect between them, a paired presentation method was developed. In this method, the subject under the experimental condition memorized two independent sequences of random digits, which were presented simultaneously digit by digit, the digits of the one sequence being presented visually and the digits of the other auditorily. After the presentation, subjects were asked to recall first either the visual or the auditory digit sequence, and then the other sequence. The subject under the control condition, on the other hand, memorized one sequence of random digits which were presented either visually or auditorily, and after recalling them memorized another sequence of random digits presented in the other modality. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) Under the experimental as well as under the control conditions, the recency effect appeared in the auditory memory task, but it did not in the visual memory task. (2) The performance for visual by presented digits under the experimental condition was lower than that under the control condition, whereas the performance for auditorily presented digits under the former was equal to that under the latter. The results presented might suggest that: (1) there are independent visual and auditory memories in the short-term memory; and (2) the memorizing of the auditory materials interferes with the memorizing of the visual one, but the latter does not interfere with the former.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how attitude change is generated by the recipient's degree of attitude formation, evaluative-emotional elements contained in the persuasive messages, and source expertise as a peripheral cue in the persuasion context. Hypotheses based on the Attitude Formation Theory of Mizuhara (1982) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Petty and Cacioppo (1981, 1986) were examined. Eighty undergraduate students served as subjects in the experiment, the first stage of which involving manipulating the degree of attitude formation with respect to nuclear power development. Then, the experimenter presented persuasive messages with varying combinations of evaluative-emotional elements from a source with either high or low expertise on the subject. Results revealed a significant interaction effect on attitude change among attitude formation, persuasive message and the expertise of the message source. That is, high attitude formation subjects resisted evaluative-emotional persuasion from the high expertise source while low attitude formation subjects changed their attitude when exposed to the same persuasive message from a low expertise source. Results exceeded initial predictions based on the Attitude Formation Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the connection between finger task movements (TM) and contralaterally associated movements (CAM). In Experiment I, 40 children ranging in age from five to six were required to play “marbles” (TM) with the right thumb or forefinger, while two investigators checked CAM on their left fingers. The result showed the local relation between TM and CAM wasn't strictly symmetric. In Experiment II, 60 children ranging in age from five to seven were required to consciously control their contralateral finger movements while they played TM. Following three conditions were provided; 1) The free condition with no control, 2) the inhibitory condition with conscious inhibition of CAM, and 3) the imitative condition with a typical CAM pattern. Findings were that, though all children could inhibit CAM consciously, the five-year-olds couldn't. Furthermore, TM performance improved in the lower performance group, but it deteriorated in the higher group in association with the contralateral control. These results suggest that there is a cooperative and reciprocal relationship between TM and the contralateral finger movements.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the concurrent validity of a new type of personality inventory (NPI) which has been constructed by the present authors. For this purpose, we conducted three kinds of studies. The first one was to find the relationship of the 13 scales of the NPI with the 12 scales of YG personality inventory. Factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis were employed for the study. It was found that the NPI measured relatively wider area of personality traits as compared with the YG inventory. The second and the third studies were concerned with the concurrent validity of the NPI. The inventory was applied to both six hundred company workers and two hundred university students, and they were classified into adjusted and maladjusted groups respectively according to their responses to a questionnaire aimed at measuring the adaptability to jobs or to majors. Results showed that the 13 scales of the NPI had a strong predictive power in the sense of the concurrent validity. Further studies are needed in order to measure the predictive validity of all the scales of the present personality inventory.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of computer messages of varying degrees of politeness on subjects' task performance, mental state, and attitude toward computers. The task of subjects in the experiment was to type characters into the computer. When subjects made an input mistake or exceeded the time-limit, or required aid (used the HELP key), a message was given by the computer to which subjects had to reply by pressing either the “Shut up!” button or the “I am sorry” button. Before and after the experiment subjects were required to answer a questionnaire concerned with their image and attitude toward computers and the degree to which the task of typing is unpleasant. The main results were: 1) Subjects who received impolite messages felt that the message was unfriendly, but felt less unpleasantness in typing than subjects who received no message. Subjects became aggressive when impolite message were given repeatedly. 2) Subjects who received impolite messages showed positive attitude change toward computers despite the impolite messages.
The purpose of this experiment was to examine correlations among encoding ability, decoding ability, and individual differences. Thirty undergraduates were measured on the CPI10 (short version of California Personality Inventory), Y-G Personality Inventory, and assessed for their ability to encode and decode facial and vocal expressions depicting six different emotions. The main findings were as follows: (a) encoding scores were positively correlated with both CPI10 and Y-G; (b) decoding score was correlated with CPI10 and negatively correlated with Y-G; (c) there was no correlation between encoding and decoding score on vocal expression or facial expression; and (d) there was no sex difference.
To contribute to the improvement of conditions for receiving exchange students from abroad, the present study was conducted to clarify the expectancies of such students towards their advisors and to explore possible changes in expectancy as the students gained greater familiarity with the Japanese culture. The types of response the exchange students expected from the advisors were classified into 12 categories including giving advice, acting on behalf, encouragement to be independent, listening, probing, interpretation, value judgment, empathy, clarification, support, confrontation, and others based on Ivey's (1980) microskills classification. An almost identical questionnaire was administered twice to 288 senior high school exchange students from 20 countries upon their arrival in Japan and ten months subsequent to their arrival. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) Although the subjects expected the same responding type from their advisors in Japan as they did from their parents, they were rather dependent on the advisors on their arrival; (2) as time passed and the subjects became more familiar with the Japanese culture, their expectancies towards the advisors became more similar to those in their home countries; and, (3) the longer the subjects stayed in Japan, the more independent the responding type they expected from the advisors.
Using 40 college students as subjects, this experiment was conducted to investigate differences in the influence exerted by formative groups and declining groups of the same size. No significant differences between formative and declining groups were found at the behavioural level, especially with respect to conformity rates. However, significant differences were found between the two groups at internal levels, especially with respect to the confidence exhibited in subjects' responses and the evaluation of group opinions. In formative groups, the confidence of conformers in the group increased but non-conformers showed no change. In declining groups, the confidence of non-conformers increased but conformers showed no change. Moreover, only the conformers continued to support group opinions after the groups broke down, evaluating the group opinions highly in private. The results suggested in general that individuals are influenced by group changes and that they select their own responses by anticipating changes likely to occur in the group.