Using single-adjective semantic differential scales, images of life, death, word and body were examined in 176 male and 208 female university students. The results were as follows: (1) Factor analysis of scales were carried out concept by concept. Two factors, the positive image and the negative image, were extracted for all concepts. (2) The concepts of life and death showed a concept-scale interaction, whereas the factorial structures of the concepts of word and body were very similar. (3) Factor scores indicated that females have a more positive image of life than males, and that males have a more negative image of death and a more positive image of body than females. There was no sex difference in the image of word. (4) The positions of concepts in semantic space indicated that self-image and life image are very similar in females.
Two experiments were carried out to make clear the mechanism of inferences and the representation of semantic categories with the instantiating information. In Experiment 1, verification times of instantiating-context-dependent category membership were measured for 24 graduate and undergraduate students. Verification times in RT (related true instance) condition were faster than those in UT (unrelated true instance). But those in RF (related false instance) condition were equal to those in UF (unrelated false instance). In verifying the context-dependent category, not forward association inferences from categories with the instantiating information to instance but backward association inferences from instances to instantiating contexts occurred. The results suggested that there weren't the instantiated representations of categories. In Experiment 2, categories with the instantiating information and instances were used as the predicate term in deductive reasoning. Judgements of validity and their reaction times under time pressure were measured for 24 graduate and undergraduate students. Percentages of valid responses were high in valid figure, and reaction times in universal negative proposition were longer. It was concluded that, when the tacit premises are introduced, backward association inferences are much more used than forward association inferences.
This study examined the self-others cognitive systems of anthropophobia in terms of the (an) object relationship disorder. The Self-identity Systems of 259 students were measured to clarify visually the relationship between self and others in terms of self and others cognition and interpersonal anxiety. Cluster analysis and principal components analysis of the Self-identity Systems led to the appearance of five Self-identity System types for each sex. Low anxiety level subjects tended more toward the “self convergence type” while high anxiety subjects tended more toward the “self alienation type”. These results suggest that disorder in the self-others cognitive system and the problem of self-identity relate to anthropophobia.
The present experiment was to examine the influence of perceived attitudes of mother models on preschool children's aggressive or prosocial behavior. Based on the score of CCP (children's cognition of parents) Test, sixty four-year-olds were selected and then modeling sessions were administered to them. Their mothers and kindergarten teachers were asked to answer a questionnaire on aggression and altruism of children in daily life situations. Mothers were also required to make self-ratings on their aggression, altruism and rearing attitudes. The following results were obtained. Boys who perceived being rejected by their mothers displayed less imitative aggressive behaviors than other boys and they showed significantly more extrapunitive responses in the P-F Study. No relationships were found between children's modeling behaviors and their aggression or altruism. Children's aggression at kindergarten correlated positively with their aggression at home and with their mother's aggression. It was noteworthy that girl's altruism at kindergarten correlated positively with their mother's rejection, control, and aggression.
Two experiments were carried out in order to investigate whether memory representation of a sentence is an integral unit or reducible into a set of simple elements. To-be-remembered sentences consisted of five content words to form three propositions. In Experiment 1, the number of anomalous propositions (0, 1, and 3) was varied. After acceptability rating of sentences, subjects received unexpected recognition memory test. They were instructed to rate each sentence and its component parts (3 propositions and 5 words for each sentence) on a 5-point scale. The results indicated that the recognition scores of sentences were higher than those of their constituent words when the sentences did not involve anomalous proposition. In Experiment 2, repeating the same words in the list resulted in higher recognition scores for the words and lower recognition scores for the sentences which involved the repeated words. These findings were interpreted as suggesting that memory representation of a sentence is an integral unit.
The present study was carried out to investigate the mechanism of retrieval of words in incidental memory. Thirty college students were asked to generate free associates to each target word followed by unexpected free recall and recognition tests. In the free recall test, subjects were instructed to recall both targets and generated associates. The probability of targets which elicited more associates correctly recalled was higher than that of those which did less when their associates previously recalled. The above result was interpreted as showing that the more target words had retrieval route from the generated associates the more they were recalled. False recognition score as an index of between-item elaboration was higher to an associate elicited by three targets than by two or one. No clear effects of between-item elaboration were observed for free recall performance of targets. These results were discussed in term of between-item and within-item elaboration.
The present study investigated effects of body-satisfaction on social anxiety and self-disclosing behavior, focusing on the relationship between body and self in adolescence. Thirty-six male and thirtysix female undergraduates talked with an interviewer of the same-sex or opposite-sex. Their interactions were video-taped. The following results were obtained: (1) body-satisfaction level had an effect on social anxiety and on the style of self-disclosing behavior, but not on the contents of disclosure, (2) the high body-satisfaction group was shy and passive with an interviewer of the opposite-sex, and this seemed to be common among late adolescents, (3) the low body-satisfaction group was anxious, shy, tense, and passive with an interviewer of the same-sex, (4) the low body-satisfaction group was both tense and active with an interviewer of the opposite-sex (these results suggest that a relationship exists between body-satisfaction and gender identity confusion), (5) body-satisfaction level had no effect on interpersonal distance.
The purpose of this study was to examine the conditions under which human territoriality (self/other boundary-regulation mechanism) appears in seat-taking behavior. Seat-taking in a social psychology seminar class of twelve students at a women's university was observed during the 1983, 1984 and 1985 academic years by female part-time lecturer (the author herself). At the beginning of each class, the lecturer drew the figure of the students' seating arrangement at a rectangular table, while calling each student's name. Questionnaires were also administered to the students at the end of the observation in the period 1983 and 1985 academic years. The results obtained were: 1) each student was more attached to one seating area and seating side than the others, 2) this fact reflected her seating preference to some extent, 3) no student monopolize the special seats to which she was most attached, 4) extra spaces were left between the lecturer's and the students' seat. The third finding was considered to be due to homogeneity of the student with respect to major, grade and sex and their temporal relationships within the seminar group. Also the fourth result was due to the status difference between the lecturer and the students, which led to the recognition that the seating places were mutually exclusive for both sides of them.