One hundred and ninety-nine university students (101 males, 98 females) served in a study designed to examine various factors affecting a discloser's degree of liking of and self-disclosure to a recipient. Specifically, the effects of (1) the recipient's degree of openness (high, low), (2) whether or not the recipient conveyed the discloser's self-disclosure to a third party (yes, no), and (3) the intimacy of selfdisclosure by the discloses (high, low) were assessed in terms of (a) change in self-disclosure by the discloser and (b) change in liking by the discloser. Results confirmed the hypotheses that: (1) the degree of openness of the recipient and the conveyance of self-disclosure by the recipient would interact with change in the discloser's liking of and self-disclosure to the recipient, and, (2) the degree of openness of the recipient and the intimacy of self-disclosure would interact with change in the discloser's liking of and self-disclosure to the recipient. Moreover, females were found to be more sensitive than males to conveyance by the recipient.
The reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) are reported. The MYTH is a questionnaire by which the degrees of Type A in children are measured. In Study 1, 23 teachers in kindergartens and day nurseries rated their children (N=482 in all; 3 to 5 years old) by using the MYTH. Statistical analyses of the data indicate that this questionnaire is reliable and internally consistent, and has two factors, competitiveness and impatience-aggression, just as the American version. In Study 2, children (4 to 5 years old) were divided into two groups, Type-A (N=24) and Type-B (N=25), according to the scores of the MYTH. Each child was given three tasks (mailing, discrimination, and putting-in-chips). The results show that in those tasks Type-A children show more time urgency, hard-driving, and competition than Type-B children, which suggests that the Japanese version has a high construct validity. These two studies indicate that the Japanese version can be used in Japan to study Type A of young children.
Given that group size is known to exert a negative “residual” effect in social dilemmas even when the incentive structure is held constant over different group sizes, it was hypothesized that when no personal contacts were permitted among participants in a one-shot dilemma situation, the residual effect of group size would be mediated either by expectations of other members' contributions or by efficacy of altruistic actions. The results of three experiments in which group size was varied from 2 to 501 (Experiment 1) or 3 to 36 (Experiments 2 and 3) indicate that: (1) the residual effect exists only among small groups; (2) the observed residual effect is mediated by expectations; and, (3) efficacy of altruistic actions does not mediate the observed residual effect.
To examine the process by which spatial knowledge of a university campus environment is acquired, 84 students were asked to judge differences in distance between selected campus sites using three different methods: (1) a comparative judgment; (2) magnitude estimation; and, (3) map sketching. Distances estimated were those of all two point combinations of 8 points centered on the gates and buildings of the campus, Results obtained from 46 freshmen who had entered the university four to six weeks prior to the experiment were compared with those obtained from 38 sophomore students. It was found that distances judged by the magnitude estimation and sketched map techniques were highly related to the actual physical distances and the configurations produced by multidimensional scaling (MDS) correasponded well to the actual campus configuration. Males and females were found to differ significantly in terms of subject weights on the two-dimensional INDSCAL. Response speeds for the comparative judgment task were also related to the actual physical distances. The correlation for freshmen was higher than that for sophomores and the effect of experience was found to be statistically significant on INDSCAL. Collectively, these findings suggest that knowledge of campus environments is acquired rapidly and that such knowledge is subject to modification as a result of experience in the environment.
The present experiment was conducted to examine the hypothesis that extended eye contact might intensify direct relations in a social encounter with another individual. Organized into same sex dyadic pairs, 64 students (32 male, 32 female) were divided into two groups (high- and low-eye contact) and assigned to either a positive or negative condition defined in terms of the verbal content of the confederate. With respect to the affective components of these dyadic interactions, it was found that under the positive evaluation condition, greater liking occurred in the high-eye contact group. In contrast, greater liking occurred in the low-eye contact group under the negative evaluation condition. Similar patterns were found with respect to the evaluation of “sincerity”, “interest” and “attraction” toward the confederate. All these findings were in accordance with the hypothesis stated above. However, findings related to the qualification factor of the interaction as indexed by “skill of address”, “attentiveness” and “confidence” were not in accordance with expectations. It was concluded, therefore, that increasing eye contact selectively intensifies the affective elements in a dyadic relationship while leaving the qualification aspects unaffected.
The purpose of this study is to throw light on the significance of the co-facilitator relationship in the encounter group. A questionnaire was administered to 50 encounter group facilitators. The questionnaire asks the subjects to rate two groups; good co-facilitator relationship group and a bad one, by means of a group process scale which was constructed by Hayashi (1989) to rate the encounter group developmental phase. There proved to be a significant difference between the two groups in each of thirteen items as well as in the scale as a whole. And the rating of the good co-facilitator relationship group was higher than that of the bad one, The findings have confirmed the significance of the co-facilitator relationship in the encounter group process.
One of the most important data in educational field is how children and pupils feel about the learning of individual subjects at school. Children from the third grade of elementary school and pupils from the first grade of junior high school were asked to rank the subjects, which they have been learning at school, according to six criteria such as the order of preference. The results were visually represented by the rank graph which could give the average and deviation of ranks simultaneously. It was discussed that the method of graphical representation of educational data are as useful to teachers as to children and pupils who have no knowledge about educational measurement and statistics.
The present article provides an analysis of past trends and recent developments in studies of prosocial behavior which began in the latter half of the 1960s. Particular emphasis is placed on studies relating to the subsequent bystander effect, the development of decision-making models incorporating interactions of various factors, empathy, perspective-taking, and prosocial moral judgment as an important mediating factor in motivation, including the viewpoint of self-perception. The article concludes by considering the relevance of studies of prosocial behavior to psychology at large and the directions such studies might take in the future.