To examine the factors underlying children's categorization modes (holistic vs. analytic) and ease of classification learning, 5-6 year-olds were given a classification task of schematic faces with two values in each of five dimensions. The tasks varied on the similarity between sample and learning exemplars (high vs. low) and the number of categories to be classified (one vs. two), and could classify either by holistic or analytic mode. The subjects were trained on one of the four tasks and tested the categorization modes after reaching each of three learning criteria (4/4, 8/8, and 8/8+8 correct). The results showed that (a) with increasing training trials, the number of subjects who used the analytic mode increased while that who used the holistic mode decreased, (b) the number of subjects who used the analytic mode was greater for the low-similarity than the high-similarity tasks, and (c) the task with two categories was learned faster than that with one category.
Hostile Aggression Inventory (HAT) was designed to assess different forms of hostile aggression. Subjects were 232 elementary school children, 195 junior, and 169 senior high school students. After item analyses, 54 items were selected from 96 items, many of which were derived from the Buss-Durkee Hostility-Guilt Inventory. The scale was divided into six subcategories: Physical violence (Pv), Hostility (Ho), Irritability (Ir), Verbal aggression (Vb), Indirect aggression (Id), and Displacement of aggression (Dp). Alpha coefficients were ranging from .68 to .83 for the subscales. The test-retest reliabilities ranged from .54 to .87 for the subscales in 83 senior high school students. Junior high school students of both sexes tended to express higher aggression than elementary school children and senior high school students do on Pv, Ho, and Id. Males obtained higher mean scores than females did on Pv, Id, Dp, and the total, but lower than females did on Ir. The findings showed that the scale possessed adequate construct validity and acceptable levels of reliability.
Subjects made lexical decisions to word and nonword targets under two priming conditions. For a half of the subjects, the task for prime words was to make word associations, and for the other, to play shiritori, a Japanese word game in which a new word is generated using the last syllable of a prime word as its first syllable. A semantic priming effect was obtained for the association group, when 40 per cent of the stimulus-word list was semantically related prime-target pairs and 10 per cent orthographically related (SR-40 condition), but not when the list was 10 per cent of semantically related and 40 per cent orthographically related (OR-40 condition). An orthographic priming effect was obtained for the shiritori group in the OR-40 condition, but not in the SR-40 condition. The interaction effect seems to indicate that subject's expectancy played an important role in primed lexical decision, and the expectancy was affected not only by the stimulus-word list construction but also by the tasks for prime words. These findings were discussed in terms of the spreading activation theory that distinguishes automatic and expectancy-based processes.
Behaviors of two strains of rats (F344/DuCrj and wistar-Imamichi) in three novel situations (Runway, open-field, and I-maze) were compared in order to clarify the characteristics of each situation. Eighty rats were used; 40 were F344/DuCrj and 40 were Wistar-Imamichi. Principal component analysis of each ambulation score abstracted two major components of ‘activity’ and ‘emotionality’. Highly ‘active’ rats ambulated much in the three situations, whereas highly ‘emotional’ rats ambulated much in the open-field test and little in the Runway test. These results suggest that there appeared ‘escape response’ in the open-field test, while ‘freezing response’ occurred in the same rat in the Runway test. Wistar-Imamichi was more ‘active’ than F344/DuCrj, whereas the latter was more ‘emotional’ than the former. This study also confirmed the idea that the rats were frightened in I-maze less than in Runway.
The purpose of this paper was to examine the cognitive process and solution at contradictory situation consisting of two propositions. In the first investigation, subjects (N=50) were asked to rate one hundred contradictory situations in terms of three cognitive aspects: contradictoriness, solvability, ordinariness. In the second investigation, five types of solution were proposed by combination of negativepositive orientation and past-future orientation, and subjects (N=149) were asked to assign the solutions obtained in the pre-investigation to one of following five types, that is, past-oriented negative, past-oriented positive 1, 2, future-oriented negative, future-oriented positive. The obtained results suggested the plausibility of five types of solution, and the cognitive process in contradictory situation was discussed.
Three experiments demonstrated that escape-avoidance learning is closely related to the response type dominantly occurred in mice of an inbred strain. Inescapable shock elicited locomotion (L-typed response) in C57BL/6mice, and rearing or jumping (R-typed response) in C3H/He (Experiment 1). In the shuttle-box situation where both of these responses can be effective to terminate CS tone and electric shock, C57BL established L-typed avoidance mainly, while C3H tended to learn avoidance by R-typed response (Experiment 2). The two strains learned the escape in the shuttle-box by the same types of response as they showed in avoidance learning (Experiment 3). These findings lead us to conclude that different inbred strains of mice innately react to electric shock by their specific types of response. Strain differences in escape-avoidance learning could thus be attributed to the compatibility of the specific response type with requirement of the task situation.
We examined Kaufman, Bacon, and Barroso's (1973) finding that perceived depth covaries with relative luminance of the two half-fields of the stereograma Five subjects were shown two sets of stereograms: one with three lines and another with random dots. In each trial, they reported the apparent depth plane produced by one of 15 different relative luminances of the lines or the mid portions of the random dots. The direction and the magnitude of perceived depth as a function of the relative luminance varied across subjects. It is argued that the stimulus should be considered as being Wheatstone-Panum's Limiting Case rather than that requires processing of binocular retinal disparity.
The present experiment was carried out to examine the effects of verbal instruction of rehearsal strategy and test expectancy of final recall on immediate and final recall, in the situation of simultaneous presentation of items. Subjects' spontaneous rehearsal activities were also explored by means of a revised version of questionnaire regarding rehearsal substrategies. Ninety undergraduates participated in this experiment. The resulting data indicated performance under the associative rehearsal instruction was better than that of rote rehearsal instruction in final recall, but was not in immediate recall. In both immediate and final tests, there was no difference of performance between subjects instructed to rehearse repetitively and spontaneously. The effect of test expectancy was found in final recall, and was interpreted to be owing to frequent use of substrategies relating imagery and intra-list association from the result of questionnaire.
To test whether the similarity between the prototypical and the study exemplars affects the recognition of prototypical exemplars, 60 undergraduates were presented two, four, or six sample exemplars simultaneously, and then asked to judge whether average prototypical (Pa) or the modal prototypical (Pm) exemplars, was more similar to, or went together with them. In the narrow category structure which are composed of exemplars with less variable values, the Pa exemplars were selected as frequently as the Pm ones. In the wide category structure which are composed of the exemplars with more variable values, however, the Pm exemplars were selected more frequently than the Pa ones, Previous finding that Pm exemplars were more abstracted than Pa exemplars in the wide structure might be due to the similarity between prototypical exemplars and sample exemplars.