This experiment was attempted to investigate the strategies of pitch coding in melody processing. Twenty-six musically trained and twenty-six musically naive subjects were instructed to make recognition for melodies after a 12-s retention interval, during which four conditions of interference (i.e. pause, interfering melody, nonsense syllables, musical note names) were interpolated. Both the standard and comparison melodies were 6-tone sequences which composed of high-tonality structure or low-tonality structure. It was found that the recognition of musicians was severely distrupted by the “note names” under a tonal melody, while it was disrupted by “interfering melody” under an atonal melody. On the other hand, the recognition of non-musicians was significantly worse than musicians, and there were no significant differences in distruptive effects between the interferences. These findings suggest that musicians could used verbal (note names) coding strategy for tonal melody and sensory pitch coding strategies (ex. humming, whistling) for atonal melody, but that non-musicians could not use any effective strategies for melody coding. Results were also discussed in relation to contour and pitch of melodies.
Robustness of the analytic/holistic processing strategies was examined in various cognitive tasks. The tasks in Experiment I were to classify facial patterns and verbal materials of different category structures into two categories. Stimuli were presented either with (thematization condition) or without a theme. Three types of strategies were discerned; consistently-analytic, consistently-holistic and optimal shifting. Experiment II was designed to test their performance in the Kagan type perceptual and memory identification tasks. The results from the two experiments showed that about 30% of the subjects adhered to either analytic or holistic strategy across tasks and experiments. They exhibited responses similar to the reflective and impulsive types. Approximately 40% of the subjects adjusted their strategies according to the task demands.
The right ear advantage in dichotic listening test for VCV word pairs was investigated using both longitudinal and cross-sectional methods with children whose age ranged from four to six. The degree of a right ear advantage and the population of those who showed a right ear advantage increased with age in the cross-sectional method. In the longitudinal method, however, the above findings could not be confirmed. These results suggest that the application of dichotic listening test may be inappropriate to young children.
Three experiments examined how intervals of added sequences affected rat's learning of the reinforcement pattern. Animals were trained for runway performance corresponding to the series of one reinforcement trial (R) and two nonreinforcement trials (N) run with 30-s ITIs. The series was NNR, RNN, NRN for Experiments 1, 2, 3, respectively, Following this acquisition training, a second series of three nonreinforced trials with 30-s ITIs was added to the first series. Animals were assigned to two groups matched for performance level and they were given an added series with either long or short inter-session intervals. Subjects in Group S-ITI were given totally six trials with 30-s ITIs, while subjects in Group L-INT were given 30-min between the first and second series. Running speed for the first series differed with structure of the series (reinforcement pattern). The pattern of running speed for added series (Trials 4-6) was similar to that for original series (Trials 1-3) in Group L-INT, while running speed was kept at a low level for added series of nonreinforced trials in Group S-ITI. As is suggested by these findings, the events regularly occurred with equal ITIs can be remembered as one series, even when a new series of events is added to already experienced one with the same ITIs. However, when the second series is temporally separated from the first one by long intervals, the memory system may be reset so that events can be segregated as two sequences.
A model consisting of excitatory and inhibitory processes was proposed for visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from the midline occiput (Oz). On and off stimulation of circular lights subtending 2° and 5° in visual angle were presented with luminance contrast of 1.0, 2.2, and 3.4. The typical triphasic data from a well trained male subject were analysed and decomposed into the two monophasic processes by using the optimal model parameters (amplitude, delay, and peak latency). Then those parameters were predicted by the multiple regression method with the variables for the present experimental conditions. The shapes of the model VEPs were fairly well fitted for ones of the raw data. The model was discussed with its relation to other perceptional phenomena, especially, flickering, forward and backward masking, and spatio-temporal properties, as well as with the physiological aspects. Finally, it was suggested that the dual process model for VEPs would be useful to investigate as well as to explain the spatio-temporal characteristics of the human visual system.
This study examined the features of cross-modal Stroop interference in picture-word processing by making comparison between auditory-visual and visual-visual tasks. Eleven subjects participated in each task and were instructed to name the picture as quickly as possible. To clarify the semantic-relatedness effect on the amount of interference, five types of different degrees of picture-word semantic relation were used: same stimulus (SS), same category (SC; both items belong to the same category), incongruent (IC), neutral (N) and control condition (C). To investigate the time course of information processing, stimulus onset asynchrony between the word and the picture were varied. In auditory-visual task strong interference effects were obtained in SC, IC and N conditions when the words preceded the pictures by 200, 100 and 0ms. In visual-visual task the similar effects were shown in SC and IC conditions within a 100ms envelope around simultaneous onset of the two components. These results were discussed in relation to the locus of Stroop interference and the processing mechanisms of picture naming and word reading.
Two experiments were conducted to study “the modality effect”, to say, whether auditory presentation gives rise to larger recency effect than visual presentation. Both experiments consisted of presenting 11 undergraduate students with lists of 10 items in visual or auditory modality. The first experiment showed that this effect was eliminated when recall was delayed by oral distractor activity. The second experiment demonstrated that “the modality effect” was obtained on the continuous distractor paradigm in which each list item was preceeded and followed by a period of oral distractor activity. Although the same distractor activity as that in the first experiment was used in the second experiment, “the modality effect” was reinstated by the continuous distractor paradigm. These results suggest that the PAS and other “echoic” theories are inadequate for explanations of “the modality effect”.
The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the effect of presenting proposition on scene recognition memory for preschool children and college students. Subjects viewed a series of scenes and were asked to remember them. On viewing scenes, subjects were presented the proposition of the scene by an experimenter for each experimental group but not for each control group. It was found that for preschool children memory of the experimental group exceeded that of the control group, though for adults memory of the control group exceeded that of the experimental one. These results suggest that preschool children might not exchange the information of scenes to proposition as effectively as adults.
SCT-B is an application of Sentence Completion Test. The feature of this test is that each subject completes two sentences connected by ‘GA’ which is a Japanese particle equivalent to ‘BUT’. From the 83 college students data, 14 response patterns could be classified. The purpose of this study is to explain the SCT-B as an assessment of the two-sided cognition (two-way cognition, i.e. positve-negative, past-present, ideal real). In Research 1, inter-rater agreements was examined. The percentage of agreements between the author and two other postgraduate students was 71.01%, 76.73%, respectively. In Research 2, Two-Sided Personality Scale (TSPS) and SCT-B were administered to the 97 college women. «Positive-Negative» pattern of SCT-B was correlated with the two-sidedness score (positive adjectives) of TSPS (r=.250, p<.5). These results indicate that SCT-B is an effective measurement of the two-sided cognition.
Two experiments were conducted with human subjects to investigate the similarities and differences between animal and human behaviors under autoshaping procedures. In these experiments, light served as CS, and display on TV served as US. Whether the pushing button response or gazing response to CS could be obtained in human subjects under Pavlovian conditioning procedure was examined. In Experiment 1, uninstructed naive subjects were placed in a room containing a push-button and a TV display, Within the experimental sessions, the push-button was lit for 8s as CS, and then paired with the display of a soft pornographic program on TV for 10s. The result indicated that the modeling of pushing button promoted the increase of response probability among the subjects. The trials conducted after the rest period indicated an increase of response probability. In Experiment 2, a 4cm square translucent panel was lit for 20s as CS, and then paired with the display of a computer graphic picture on TV for 8s as US. Some subjects started gazing at the CS for several seconds. These results indicated that some subjects could acquire the gazing response under the autoshaping procedure.