The purpose of the present study is to examined developmental changes and sex differences in judging weights. Experimental groups were engaged in weights addition tasks and then given correct answers (correctional feedback). Four to six months later, both experimental and control groups were subjected to the same tasks. The individual range of reaction time in 6th graders is much wider than that in 5th graders and that the presentation of correctional feedback is more effective in 6th graders. These results suggest that 6th graders make more efforts in judging weights addition with logical and overall criteria. Both 6th male and 5th female students judge weight with more consistent confidence than both 5th male and 6th female students. These results suggest that male students come to judge weight with consistent confidence with age while female students do not, and that the social desirability, that is, “male will always hold their own opinion” seems to affect judging process.
This study was intended to investigate the coalition tactics of the weaks under the situation where four players in the power relationship such as “A>B=C=D, A<(B+C+D)” struggled for new resources of power. Subjects were 128 male undergraduates divided into 32 groups of four members each. The experimental design was 2 (determinants of power strength; resouce size or rank order)×2 (range of power distance between the strong and the weaks; large or small). As the result, it was revealed that the weaks preferred revolutional coalition “BCD” under the condition where the resource size determined the power strength, while preferred getting-ahead coalition “AB, AC, AD” under the condition where the rank order determined, and that expansion of power distance reinforced such tendency of the weaks. It was also shown, however, that the weaks did not always form the coalitions as they had hoped before bargaining. In conclusion, the necessity to examine the characteristcs of the weaks' mentalities and behaviors in coalition bargaining was suggested.
The study proposes an item response curve defined in terms of a logistic function of differences between unknown scale values. Two Examples are presented to illustrate the proposed model. In the first example, data on subjective likelihood of rain-fall statements are analysed by the proposed model and dual scaling, noting inferential properties of the estimated scale values being the most remarkable advantage of the former over the latter. In the second example, data on same-different judgement are analysed by the present method, resulting in a multidimensional configuration of data points, which shows close resemblance to Shepard's well-known results of multidimensional scaling.
The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the influence of the ratio of contribution to the task between two persons on children's selecting reward allocation principles, and 2) to clarify this influence on them in both cooperative and competitive conditions. In Study I, there were two kinds of conditions of ratio of contribution to the task which was required to fold newspapers, that is, three to one and three to two. For example, a subject folded 150 newspapers while his/her partner folded 50 newspapers in the three to one condition. Subjects were 444 school-aged children from 3rd, 4th, 5th, to 6th grade. Subjects who completed the task at a ratio of three to one tended to prefer using, the equity principle more than subjects who did the task at a ratio of three to two, whereas more subjects in the latter tended to divide equally than the former. In Study II, subjects were 373 2nd-, 4th-, and 6th- graders. The results indicated that children in a competitive condition appeared to have a preference for equitable allocation than in a cooperative one, and that children in the cooperative condition selected equality principle because of keeping good human relations.
Previous studies using Bieri's ‘cognitive complexity’ score had supported ‘vigilance hypothesis’ which assumed that impressions of unfavorable persons were more complex than favorable persons. Thus, Bieri's measure seemed to be invalid because the findings were completely contrary to ‘frequency of interaction hypothesis’, presented in the theoretical framework of ‘cognitive complexity’, which assumed that impressions of familiar persons were more complex than unfamiliar persons, since people could be supposed to have more intimate acquaintance with favorable persons. The purpose of present study was to indicate the invalidity was caused by the research design where familiarity was dependent on favorability and to show that even Bieri's score could support ‘interaction hypothesis’, if one variables could be statistically orthogonized to the other. In each of two surveys reported, about two hundred female undergraduates completed a Rep test where they rated favorable and unfavorable persons on the basis of some dimensions which included favorability and familiarity. The results obtained through various regression analyses supported the above predictions. Moreover, it was revealed that, with favorability controlled, Bieri's score showed almost linear increases as familiarity increased, though the score of extremely unfamiliar persons was rather higher than the score the linear function could predict.
Effects of inclined frame of reference upon inclination of the target line have been studied under successive and absolute judgments. Using nine undergraduate students as subjects, a marked oblique effect on the distribution of judgment errors was found under the condition with the horizontal frame of reference. In contrast, the peak of errors shifted in proportion to the inclination of the frame of reference and the relative dominance disappeared on physically horizontal and vertical axes. Some familiarized response categories such as 0°, 30°, 45°, 90° and -30° were utilized more frequently than the others, and this tendency was found to be similar in every subjects and conditions. These consequences couldn't be attributed to the anisotropy of orientation analyzers, therefore, the obtained results have been explained in terms of the anchoring effect during categorization processes.
This research was conducted to explore the cause-effect relationship between coping and adaptational outcomes. Cognitive behavior therapy was employed to change coping styles. During a 4-week period, 10 subjects were treated with methods of relaxation as an active-coping skill (RCT) and problem-solving training (PST), while 10 subjects served as a waiting list control. Coping scale scores measured by the revised Ways of Coping Checklist and psychological/physical symptom levels were obtained before and after the treatments, and also after a follow-up period of 14 months. The subjects treated with RCT and PST showed significant reductions in symptoms as well as significant increases in problem-focused coping both after the treatment and at the follow-up measurement. The control group did not show any significant change in symptoms and coping. The results indicate that RCT and PST are effective in changing tangible coping styles and, therefore, in reducing psychological/physical symptoms.
The purpose of this study was to compare Kanji items with Kana ones in terms of the free recall performance, and to investigate the effect of orthography and imagery on memory. Two experiments were conducted in incidental learning paradigm, in which subjects were instructed to read aloud each stimulus item. In Experiment 1, an immediate recall test was used. Number of correct free recall for low imagery items was larger in Kanji than in Kana, and this result agreed with Yokoyama and Imai (1989). In Experiment 2, 30-s delay was inserted between a reading aloud task and a recall test. The recall performance indicated superiority of Kanji items in high imagery items. These results were interpreted that the recall process was different between in Kanji items and in Kana ones.
To collect longitudinal data on the development of the spatial problem solving ability in the early blinds, 27 children of schools for the blind (8:11 to 14:11 years old), who participated in the Yamamoto's (1990) experiment two years ago, were re-tested using the same method as before. Five blind children (6:3 to 7:10 years) were also newly added. Subjects walked, with the guidance of the experimenter, on a route from the first to the third points. After reaching the third point of each route, subjects were required to walk back by him/herself to the first point. The trials were repeated 12 times using different routes. Subjects revealed less angle errors and less distance errors than in the previous experiment, but they did not show any change in the percentage of “longer turns” at the third point. The subjects' trails of walking changed from the nonlinear to the linear types as a function of age. Differences in the three performance measures and the developmental changes in the walkingtrails of children were discussed, the latter with reference to the developmental transition of the spatial ability from the route to the survey types.