The relationship between cognitive and language developments of ten profoundly mentally retarded children was examined through a longitudinal study. Cognitive processing tasks with matching-to-sample procedure were employed to examine the perceptual identification and representative function of objects. Concerning the development of language, both periods in which the comprehension and the utterance of object names emerged in each subject were recorded. There was no one-to-one correspondence between the onsets of representative function and language development, i.e, the comprehension of object names emerged not only before, but also a long time after, the onset of representative function. Also, there was little possibility that the utterance of object names emerged simultaneously at the onset of representation.
Each of eight rats was located in the experimental chamber mounted with two levers. Lever-pressing to either of the two was maintained by a schedule of food. After that, a punishment schedule of electric shocks was added. Neither the reinforcement nor the punishment schedule was programmed on the other lever, i.e. the non-reinforced alternative. The effect of reinforcement, and the joint effect of reinforcement and punishment on responses to the non-reinforced alternative were compared. During punishment sessions, responses to the non-reinforced alternative occurred significantly more often than during reinforcement sessions. The number of responses to the non-reinforced alternative was negatively correlated with that to the reinforced alternative during punishment sessions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of responses to the non-reinforced alternative was mainly observed during the first few sessions in punishment schedule, or after stepping up the intensity of electric shock. These results were discussed in relation to the two theories and models of punishment. The results imply that the two theories and models of punishment are necessary to explain the effect of punishment.
There are two different views on gathering information about self. According to “self-assessment” view, individuals choose tasks that are diagnostic about themselves, regardless of self esteem implications. On the other hand, according to “self-enhancement” view, individuals choose tasks that are diagnostic only when they have positive self-esteem implications. Present research tested these predictions in Japanese college students, using for tasks with high or low diagnosticity of success and failure. In subjects with low uncertainty of self-esteem, task preference increased with diagnosticity of success and diagnosticity of failure. This was consistent with self-assessment view, However, in subjects with high uncertainty of self-esteem, task preference didn't increase with diagnosticity of failure. In subjects with high self-esteem, task preference is high with high diagnosticity of failure than that of subjects with low self-esteem. The results suggest large individual differences in gathering information about self. They also suggest that not only self-esteem but also uncertainty of self-esteem should be considered in studies of self-enhancement motivation.
Effects of the temporal interval on reinforcement pattern learning were investigated in four experiments using a runway. The reinforced trial was always the first trial for R5N sequence (Experiments 1a and 1b), and the fourth trial for 3NR2N sequence (Experiments 2a and 2b). Group S-ITI received the given sequence at 30-s ITI, Group L-INT received the same procedure as Group S-ITI except for a 30-min ITI inserted between Trials 3 and 4 (Experiments 1a and 2a). Group L-ITI received at 30-min ITI, Group S-INT did as Group L-ITI except for the ITI between Trials 3 and 4 was 30 seconds (Experiments 1b and 2b). It was found that the running speed on each of Trials 1 and 4 was faster than any other trials under R5N and 3NR2N sequences for Group L-INT. That is, the running pattern for Trials 1-3 was similar to that for Trials 4-6. On the other hand, the running speed on Trial 4 under R5N sequence and that on Trial 1 under 3NR2N sequence did not increase for Group S-INT. These results suggest that a longer or shorter ITI plays the roles of both phrasing cue and discriminative stimulus. For Group S-ITI and Group L-ITI, there was little evidence that sequences were phrased. Therefore, when trials are separated by equal ITIs, neither 30-s ITI nor 30-min ITI becomes a phrasing cue.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of teacher stimulation on 1) learning motivation of students who were poor in mathematics and 2) the students' impression of the teachers. One type of teacher stimulation was the encouragement of students who were poor in mathematics to make more effort because they had good ability but their ability was not yet realized. The other type of teacher stimulation was the encouragement of the students to exert themselves because of their previous lack of effort. A questionnaire, including the scenario describing the two types of teacher stimulation and several questions about the students' motivation and impression of the teachers, was administered to 378 elementary school, junior high school, and college students. The former type of teacher stimulation was partially more effective in the motivation of students and also fully more effective in the students' impression of the teachers than the latter type of teacher stimulation.
The purpose of the present study was: 1) to investigate the effects of two types of comparative advertisng-Merit-type (emphasizing positive aspects of their own brand) and Demerit-type (pointing out negative aspects of the rival brand); and 2) to find an effective strategy against comparative advertising of a rival company. Subjects were shown advertisements, and were then asked to evaluate those advertisements (17 items), the brands and company images (3 items) for these two companies. The results are as follows: Comparative advertising, especially of the Demerit-type, was the most conspicuous type of advertising, which also had a significant negative effect on the perception of rival brands. However, this type of advertising also had a negative effect on his own advertising, the brands advertised, and the company itself. Furthermore, it was found that when a rival company uses Demerit-type advertising, it is better not to respond by the same type, but to respond by Merit-type advertsing. In such a situation, positive image of his own brand and company become significantly higher.
In this experiment, younger (4-year-olds) and older (6-year-olds) preschool children's task choices were analyzed based on the objective and subjective task difficulty levels. First, preschool children's understanding of the objective task difficulty levels was examined. While most older children understood the objective task difficulty levels, younger children did not. No understandable children's subjective task difficulty levels were checked. Next, younger and older children's task choices were analyzed respectively based on the objective task difficulty levels. As a result, there was no difference between an easy task choice and a moderate or a difficult task choice in both of them. Then, understandable children's task choices were reanalyzed based on the objective task difficulty levels and no understandable children's task choices were reanalyzed based on their subjective task difficulty levels. As a result, younger children chose an easy task more than a moderate or a difficult task. On the other hand, older children chose a moderate or a difficult task more than an easy one.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the hypothesis that 4-year-olds' failure to resist to temptation was caused by their attention to motivational qualities of tempting objects. The forbidden toy situation forbidden to play with the attractive toy was used, In Experiment I that manipulated attention style of tempting objects, four conditions were set. Two conditions of these were conditions that prevented from attending to the motivational qualities of tempting objects and consisted of distraction condition that distracted from toy and toy-negative condition that evaluated the toy negatively. The other two conditions were control condition and toy-positive condition that attended to the motivational qualities of toy. The main results indicated that the transgression latencies of distraction and toy-negative conditions were longer than the other two conditions. In Experiment II, subjects were instructed to choose the strategy that they would use between stimulus pairs obtained by combining three strategy used in Experiment I. The results indicated that the number of subjects choosing toy-positive strategy were more than the other strategies in pairing toy-positive strategy with other two strategies. The hypothesis was supported from the present study.
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that high (low) self-esteem children modeled after a lower (higher) SR criterion model in a multiple condition. Based on their self-esteem rating scores 48 third-graders were selected and divided randomly into two modeling conditions: a HL condition in which subjects viewed a video showing both an H model (high SR criterion) and an L model (low SR criterion), and an M condition that showed children only an M model (middle SR criterion). Both groups contained high and low self-esteem children. The number of tokens taken as self-reward in a task which was the same as that shown on the video was analysed. The following were the main results. The high self-esteem group in the HL condition took more tokens for their high score than the high one in the M condition. But the low self-esteem group in the HL condition tended to take fewer tokens for their high score than the low one in the M condition. In the HL condition, the low self-esteem group took fewer tokens than the high one. These results supported the hypothesis.