Effects of cross-modal divided attention on event-related potentials (ERPs) were examined. Tone pips through either left or right headphones, and colored words, either red or blue on a CRT display were presented in random order with equal probabilities (.25). Each class of stimuli included rare target tones or words. Eight subjects were instructed to attend 1, 2, 3 or all of four classes of stimuli in various combinations and to press a button quickly when targets occurred in the attending classes. ERPs to non-target stimuli in each class were recorded. Attention-related negative components of ERPs were largest when attention was focused upon only 1 class of stimuli, and their amplitudes decreased when attention was divided. A greater attenuation of ERPs was caused by the intra- rather than inter-modally divided attentions. The results suggest that the attention-related negative components may reflect the limitation of capacity or interference among sub-mechanisms in each of visual and auditory modalities.
The purpose of this study was to find appropriate methods of calculating perceived intensity of mixed odors from the intensity of component odors. Samples were 44 mixed odors, of which 14 were mixtures of dimethyl sulfide, trimethylamine and ammonia, and 30 were those of dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid and pyridine. Twelve subjects rated intensity of odor of the samples administered through a specially devised olfactometer with a 6-points-rating-scale. The results showed that the rating was greater than odor of the weakest component and less than simple sum of those of the components. Three models of odor combination, i.e., a summation model, a maximum model and a vector model, were applied to the results and the latter 2 models were found to agree good with the observed values.
To construct a scale for arithmetic ability, three forms of test were built and administered to grades three through five. Applying the two-parameter item response model, all parameters of the model were estimated simultaneously for three test forms. Thus, it was possible to compare the difficulty and the discriminating power of all items in a common scale. Accuracy of ability estimation of each test, which was evaluated by the test information function, revealed that precision of estimation was enough for practical use. In the common scale, the average of estimated ability was -.35 for grade three, 0.0 for grade four, and 1.48 for grade five, showing that the difference between grade three and four was small, compared to that between grade four and five. Possible applications of the scale were also discussed.
Two studies investigated the mood congruent effects of music on word cognition. In both studies, bright or sad music was used in order to induce elated or depressed mood, and subjects were assigned to either the bright or the sad music condition. In Study 1, positive and negative personality trait words and non-words were presented with the music to examine the effect on incidental recall. Thirtyone subjects were asked to judge whether the words were positive or negative as quickly and accurately as possible. In Study 2, 37 subjects were presented with ambiguous personality trait words without and with music to examine how their interpretations of ambiguous stimuli were affected by music. The results showed the mood congruent effects on recall, interpretation, and response time, and these findings agreed with those obtained from other studies of the mood effects on cognition, especially on recall. It was suggested that music induces a certain mood, which influences on cognitive processes of other stimuli.
In solving problems in which the amount of memory required increases during the course of solution the subjects would select such strategies as to cope with the deterioration of performance due to the trade-off between the memory load and the information-processing efficiency. To test the above hypothesis 58 graduates and undergraduates were asked to solve a number-guessing problem. In Experiment I, the subjects' responses were categorized and two different information-processing strategies were extracted; the condensation-of-information strategy and the partiality-decision strategy. These strategies were coded as flow charts. In Experiment II, to clarify the relation between processing and memory strategies, memory load was varied by giving the subjects different amount of cues for the solution. Results suggested that the subjects coped flexibly with the demand of situation by adaptive usage of twolayer solving strategies corresponding to the amount of memory load; one was a memory strategy and the other was a processing strategy.
The present study was to explore the molding of sexual identity in early-adolescent females. First, a questionnaire was administered to 168 9th grade girls. Out of all the respondents, 12 who did not have conflicts with sexual identity as an accepting group and 10 who had them as a non-accepting group were selected for the interview. Analyses of the results revealed that the contents of their conflicts cover various phases of femininity, which are concerned with body, character, and sex role etc. Moreover, it was found that not only their good images of parents, but also those of males were important when they achieve their sexual identity.
Japanese Irrational Belief Test (JIBT), a self-report type measure was developed as a means to aid the controlled clinical research on rational-emotive therapy. A five point scale questionnaire consisting of 107 items was administered to 211 Japanese university students, analyzed by factor analysis and item analysis, and seven scales of 10 items each were finally constructed. Seven scales measure the testee's beliefs on self expectation, problem avoidance, ethical blame, helplessness over inside, dependence, cooperativism and helplessness over outside. Coefficients of internal consistency of seven scales were 0.725 to 0.882. Both the JIBT and the STAI were administered to 208 normal subjects to examine their relationships, and the JIBT was also administered to 98 neurotic subjects to compare with the normal subjects. The results showed that for the normal subjects the beliefs on problem avoidance, helplessness over inside, dependence, cooperativism and helplessness over outside were highly correlated with anxious proneness, and statistically significant differences between the normal subjects and the neurotic subjects were found in the beliefs on self expectation, problem avoidance, helplessness over inside, dependence and helplessness over outside.
The process of decision in a multialternative choice task is said to consist of two phases, In the first phase, undesirable alternatives are eliminated roughly on the basis of a few attributes. Then, in the second, the remaining alternatives are carefully evaluated and final choice is made. The purpose of this study was to determine how many alternatives survive the initial screening. Ninty students were asked to choose the best driving school from one of three sets, consisting of three, six, or nine alternatives. Subsequently, they were asked to recall the attributes of each alternative. In the “six” and “nine” alternative conditions, mean recalls for the third-ranking alternative was markedly lower than those of the top two alternatives. Moreover, the difference between mean recalls for the top two was very small. Within these multialternative conditions, the results suggested that two alternatives survived through the screening phase, and one of them was chosen in the last phase.
The purposes of this article are to review literature on direct priming (or repetition priming) and to comment on the current literature and its perspectives. Among a number of studies concerning direct priming, two categories of studies were mainly discussed: One is concerned with longevity of priming effects, and the other is concerned with variables which influence direct priming. Most of the formar research has demonstrated long-lasting priming effects, but the theoretical account remains unclear. The latter has presented a variety of inconsistent findings. Finally three directions for future research were pointed out: methodological investigation, expanding research targets, and interaction among different approaches.