Three studies were conducted to construct a scale to measure shyness as a trait and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. In Study I, 803 university students completed an original version of the Trait Shyness Scale (TSS) along with some other scales assessing tendencies theoretically linked to shyness. Through item analyses, 16 items were selected for the final TSS. Scores on the TSS showed a high internal consistency (α=.890) and a high test-retest reliability (γ=.724). Thus the reliability of TSS was established. The validity of TSS was confirmed by the following results. (1) The TSS score was significantly and positively correlated with the measures of evaluation apprehension, inferiority feeling, and interpersonal anxiety. Inverse relationships were observed between the TSS score and the measures of social expressivity and emotional control. (2) Correlation between the self-rated TSS score and the others (classmates)-rated shyness score of professional schools students (N=68) was γ=.584, p<.001 (Study II). (3) In Study III, 33 university students who had previously completed TSS were videotaped while they were role-playing with other students. Two raters viewed each tape and independently rated the target person on seven impressionistic rating items, including shyness. The rating of shyness was positively correlated with TSS score (γ.=557, p<.001).
In this article, we report the results of two experiments which investigated the repetition effect of stimulus presentation on recognition judgement. Each stimulus in sets of stimuli had five or six binary attributes. Any two stimuli could be mutually transformed by changing values of some attributes. In the experiments, subjects learned and immediately recalled stimuli, presented one after another. Learning was repeated several times. In the following recognition task, subjects were presented, one after another, the set of test stimuli consisted of old and new stimuli and judged whether each stimulus was old or new, and rated the degree of confidence of the judgement. The results showed that when learning of the presented stimuli progressed, the degree of the confidence of ‘old’ judgement increased for the presented stimuli, while for the new stimuli, it increased, at first, and then decline.
The purpose of this study is to examine situational determinants of one type of expressions used in situations of requests: expressions in which a speaker refers to his surroundings or his own condition without using conventional forms of requests (expressions of a speaker's state: ESSs). In four experiments subjects read scenarios in each of which the protagonist needed to make a request, and then the subjects made a note of how they would say in that situation. The findings were as follows: (Experiment 1) Subjects used ESSs more when it was obligatory for the addressee to obey the request than when it was not. (Experiment 2) Intimacy between the protagonist and the addressee did not uniformly influence subjects' use of ESSs, (Experiment 3) When the addressee made a previous statement which indicated his knowledge of the protagonist's goal, ESSs decreased, (Experiment 4) Subjects used indecisive ending expressions (-kedo, -ga) in ESSs more when the addressee's behavior brought benefits to the protagonist than when it did not.
A serial recall experiment under same- and cross-modality conditions was carried out according to Hebb's (1961) paradigm. Subjects memorized strings of nine digits in 18 trials, which were divided into early trials and late ones. Under the same-modality condition the strings used in the 18 trials were presented through the same modality, i.e., visual or auditory, whereas under the cross-modality condition the strings used in the early and late trials were presented through two different modalities. A repeated string and unrepeated strings were presented 3 and 6 times respectively in both early and late trials. The results showed that (1) repetitive learning in the same-modality occurred for both visual and auditory; (2) there was a non-additivity of cross-modal repetitive learning from auditory to visual, whereas there was an additivity of cross-modal repetitive learning from visual to auditory. We inferred that the visual inputs received both visual coding and auditory coding through an audio-transformation so as to be separately memorized in visual and auditory memories, whereas the auditory inputs were memorized in the auditory memory through the auditory coding alone.
Effects of KR on biofeedback have conventionally been limited by learning factor. The effects of feedback on an increase in EEG alpha have been believed to be so limited as well. However, the effects of KR are also believed to include factors such as motivation and concentration. In this study, the tendencies for alpha rhythm to change were analysed and compared under 3 different KR conditions in order to demonstrate the existence of the later factors. Effects of two parameters, alpha index and microvolt integral value, were also compared. The KR conditions consisted of three types with regard to an increase in alpha rhythm: true-KR, false-KR, and mixed-KR. Ten female college students underwent the feedback task for 10 minutes under each condition. It was shown that (1) the degree of achievement and temporal profile under three KR conditions demonstrated the involvement of learning factor as well as motivation and concentration factors, and (2) alpha index showed the effects of learning, motivation and concentration in KR more distinctly than the microvolt integral value.
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a selective listening paradigm similar to a previous study (Okita, 1989). Stimuli were random sequences of five vowels and a tone pip in two ‘channels’ (separated by location, left and right). The difficulty of between-channel selection was varied in discriminability of location, easy (EL) or hard (HL), whereas within-channel selection was manipulated by designating either tone (T), one vowel (1V), or two vowels (2V) as targets. Subjects were required to attend to one channel and detect targets therein. ERPs for the EL condition replicating the earlier study, confirmed the effects of within-channel selection on the early phase of attention-related negativity (Nd): the early Nd being larger, the higher the target/nontarget selection load. In the HL condition. however, the 1V/2V difference disappeared: the early Nd effect was reduced for 2V, but prolonged in duration for 1V. The interaction between selection processes of the between- and within-channel was discussed in relation to the allocation of limited attentional capacity for operations rechecking outcomes of a preattentive target-classification stage.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orthographic familiarity on free recall of Katakana words which were read aloud. Two experiments were conducted to compare Katakana items with Hiragana ones about recall performance in incidental learning paradigm, in which subjects were instructed to perform a reading aloud task, In Experiment I, an immediate recall test was used. Number of correct free recall for high imagery items was larger than low imagery ones. In Experiment II, 30-s delay was inserted between an orienting task and a recall test. The recall performance indicated the superiority of Hiragana items. This result showed that the higher orthographic familiarity of stimulus item was, the poorer performance of its recall. It was interpreted in terms of the effect of cognitive effort on recall.
This article examined processes of relating sentences in comprehension of successive sentences. On the basis of previous findings, it is hypothesized that, if an anaphor is a noun which is identical with its antecedent, sentences can be related faster when the antecedent is in object position than in subject position of the former sentence; on the contrary, if an anaphor is a pronoun, sentences can be related faster when the antecedent is in subject position than in object position. In order to test this hypothesis, the surface form of anaphor (i.e., identical noun vs. pronoun), the syntactic position of antecedent (i.e., object vs. subject), and the postpositional particle of anaphor (i.e., “ga” vs. “wa”) were varied. Subjects read pairs of sentences, so constructed that the first sentence contained an antecedent and the second one contained an anaphor. Consistent with the prediction, the interaction between the surface form of anaphor and the syntactic position of antecedent was observed in comprehension time of the second sentence, regardless of postpositional particle. These results were discussed in terms of how readers utilized the surface form of anaphor in relating successive sentences.
This article discusses the appropriate choice of error terms for testing simple main erects as post-hoc analysis when the interaction was significant in the analysis of variance. More specifically, the problem of choice of error terms arises when we are interested in the simple main effects of the nonrepeated factor (A) in the mixed design. One of the procedures which have been frequently used is to pool the error term for A and the error term for the interaction, A by the repeated factor (B). However, this procedure assumes that the within-cell mean square is homogeneous at all levels of B. As E. F. Lind-quist (1953) and G. Keppel (1973) pointed out, such assumption is not reasonable and contradicts the observations in many cases. An alternative procedure is to compute the within-cell mean square at each level of B. These individual or separate error terms are more appropriate because they don't need the above homogenity assumption.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the two figural cues, “alignment” and “incompletion”, would affect the microgenetic process of subjective contour (SC) perception. To change the effectiveness of each figural cue, four patterns of inducing figures (IFs) were used; “AI” pattern with both figural cues intact, “A” pattern in which the “incompletion” cue was weakened (with “alignment” as a main cue), “I” pattern in which the “alignment” cue was weakened (with “incompletion” as a main cue), and “N” pattern where both cues were obliterated. These IFs were exposed to four subjects tachistoscopically for 10-70 ms, followed by a masking pattern (dur. 500 ms) exposed without interval. All the subjects were asked to judge the clarity of the SC. The results showed that it took longer processing time to achieve the SC perception at the same clarity level as in the free observation with “I” and “N” patterns than with “AI” and “A” patterns. These results support the previous finding that “alignment” cue could generate the SC perception when each IF element was not clearly perceived and “incompletion” was not available as a main cue (Takahashi, 1990).