The present study investigated the relationship among construct accessibility, self-schema and person memory. Three hundred and thirty-four subjects received 40 behavioral descriptions of a stimulus person, consisting of eight specific behaviors on each of five trait-dimensions. Subjects also rated personality traits of their acquaintances and themselves on nine-point bipolar scales and ranked the importance of the five trait-dimensions. Weights, which subjects assigned to each of the five dimensions, were calculated as indices of construct accessibility. Self-schema scores of each subject were also calculated based on his/her ratings. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the dimensional weights and selfschema scores were positively correlated with the recall performance of the descriptions of the stimulus person. The schematics recalled significantly more descriptions than the aschematics, whether their self-schema was positive or negative. Subjects who had positive self-schema showed higher construct accessibility than the aschematics. It was argued that the relationship between construct accessibility and self-schema might be affected by motivational factors such as self-esteem.
When a consensus is seeked but no compromise seems to be obtainable among opposing opinions, people are oftenly forced to choose one of them. This experiment investigated the effects of giving way and agreeing with the group under topics of either a high or low degree of importance. The results were as follows: 1) Those who have given way to others before perceived that their opinions would be accepted more easily in the next time than those who have insisted their own opinions. This tendency was greater under the condition of topics with higher importance. 2) Consequently, those who wish to assert oneselves next time dared to give way and agree to others in the group. 3) Those who have stuck to their own opinions were much more regretful than what those who have given way would guess. From these results, it was suggested that people actively select conformity on a long view.
Seven rats were exposed to a procedure where responses on an observing lever (observing responses) changed the schedule on a food lever from a mixed schedule to a schedule with a discriminative or uncorrelated stimulus for a fixed duration; Observing responses produced a stimulus associated with a variable-ratio 50 (S+) or a stimulus associated with extinction (S-) in the S+/S- condition, an S- in the S- only condition, and an S+ in the S+ only condition, while they produced two uncorrelated stimuli in the uncorrelated condition. Experiment 1 employed two stimulus durations (30 or 6s) and two schedules of stimulus presentation (a variable-interval 30s or a fixed ratio 1), and examined observing response rates in the S+/S-, S- only, S+ only, and uncorrelated conditions. Experiment 2 employed two component durations (80 or 300s), and examined observing response rates in the S+/S- and S- only conditions. In both experiments, rates of observing responses were maintained in both S+/S- and S+ only conditions, but decreased in the S- only and uncorrelated conditions. These results indicate that an S- is not a conditioned reinforcer irrespective of manipulated variables.
The structure of lexical representations in semantic memory and their processes were investigated through phonological priming effects in lexical decision task. The SOA condition between prime stimuli and target stimuli was varied in three experiments. In each experiment, subjects were 16 graduate or undergraduate students, and 24 three-letter-words (phonologically related/unrelated) or plus signs (neutral) were used as prime, followed by target composed of 12 three letter-words and 12 three letter-nonwords. The priming effects occurred in all the experiments, particularly when prime and target shared adjacent two letters. The effects at SOA 400ms were not stable enough. At SOA 700ms, only facilitation effects were obtained, but at SOA 1000ms, the effects of both facilitation and inhibition were obtained. These results suggested that in lexical representations phonologically similar words were closely related to each other in their structure, and that especially the phonological similarity between the sets of adjacent two letters was important regarding three-letter-words. The results also suggested that it might take longer time to spread activation in lexical representation than in conceptual representation.
Temporal changes of the overall distributions and within-trial latency-distributions of autoshaped keypecking responses in pigeons were investigated. The results showed that (1) the ITI-keypecking responses observed during the early stage of training decreased in number as the training progressed; (2) within-trial response-distributions had respective peaks, which gradually shifted to the point immediately after the keylight onset; (3) the latency of the initial within-trial response were gradually shortened with the progress of the session. The results indicated the temporal changes of autoshaped keypecking responses which were discussed as reflecting processes whereby autoshaped keypecking responses converged to events informing food deliveries.
The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between achievement motive and fear of success in order to understand these two concepts better. Two hundred and fifty undergraduate students (130 females, 120 males) were investigated using scales (two types of fear of success scales and an achievement motiv scale). Results showed that the relationship between scores on fear of success subscales (consideration of others, low need for superiority, negative feelings towards success) and achievement motive subscales (self-fullfillment achievement motive, competitive achievement motive) differ according to gender and situation. The results also provide conclusive evidence for the presence of ambivalence in competitive situations.
This study attempted to clarify the age and sex differences in the perceptions of time perspective and time beliefs, and the relationships between them. A questionnaire consisted of Time Perspective Scale and Time Beliefs Scale was administered to 245 adolescents (range of age, 16-24), 46 young adults (25-39), and 150 middle aged persons (40-55). The main results were summarized as follows: (1) female adolescents showed a less sense of time perspective than the other age groups; (2) the same female adolescents expressed relatively higher degrees of Setsunashugi (the time belief of living only for the momentary pleasure); and (3) the Setsunashugi related with the lack of the sense of time perspective.
Robustness of the holistic processing strategies was examined in three classification tasks. In Experiment I, the task was to classify two kinds of facial stimuli (pictorial vs. verbal) with different category structures (family-resemblance vs. defining). About 40% of the subjects adhered to either analytic or holistic strategies. Further, Experiment II and III, using category generalization tasks, were designed to inquire into the robustness, and to explore types of encoding for the subjects adopting the holistic strategies. Four types of encoding were proposed according to confidence rating and response time measures; surfacial, divergent, elaborative, and gestalt. Robustness was found variable in compliance with task demands, and that elaborative or gestalt encoding differed from others in the nature of the holistic processing.
There are many indices that roles of men and women have changed during the last two to three decades. This paper reviews psychological and sociological literature, and points out the following: (a) the shift of sex role attitudes, (b) their important predictors, and (c) some of cross-cultural comparisons. Sex role attitude is defined here as a learned tendency, which consistently responds favorably or unfavorably to certain sex roles. Since the 1970s, many panel surveys and longitudinal surveys, both in Japan and in USA, show that sex role attitudes have shifted toward an egalitarian direction in many fields. Cross-cultural surveys in many countries revealed that the most important predictors of sex role attitudes are, sex, education, vocation, and age. Highly educated young women with a professional/managerial job show probably the most egalitarian sex role attitude. However, cross-cultural studies indicate that Japanese women have more traditional sex role attitudes than those in other countries.