It is difficult for withdrawn children to enter a play and to maintain social interaction with other children. This investigation attempted to identify whether the difficulty was due to their incorrect perception of others' responses or due to the lack of their self-confidence, Forty-five 5- and 6-years old nursery school children enrolled in six day-care classrooms served as subjects, They were divided into high middle or low groups by the degree of withdrawal, and each child was asked to play with two other sameage peers. Analyses by the observation of video recordings and the interviewing of the children revealed that the low withdrawals could perceive other children's responses more correctly than any other group, whereas there was no difference among the three groups in self-confidence. Thus, it was interpretated that those highly withdrawal children cannot skillfully enter plays with other children because they were unable to perceive other children's responses correctly. After entering a play, they also remained solitary almost all the time. The highly withdrawn children tended to keep themselves alone, while the children in low and middle degrees of withdrawal seemed to attempt to join other children even after being rejected or neglected by other children.
There have been two views as to mood congruent recall: The one interprets it as an automatic process, while the other explains that it appears only when self-referent information processing is running. In this study, one experiment was conducted in order to examine these two opposing views. By false feedback of task performance, positive or negative mood had been induced in each subject, who was given two “cue” words, and asked to retrieve everyday events, The result was that mood congruent recall occurred when the word “self” was presented as a cue; but no effect of mood with neutral cues. This result supports the hypothesis that mood congruent recall is found only when self-referent information is processed. However, such effect was not evident in positive mood condition. In positive mood condition, there remains a possibility that mood congruent recall may be an automatic process. The effects of mood on memory were discussed from various viewpoints.
The relationships between sympathetic and parasympathetic tones and a variety of cardiovascular measures were examined in 27 male college students subjected to an active coping, namely a reaction time task, for five minutes. The results demonstrated an enhanced sympathetic tone during the first one minute (P1), indicating the decreases of pre-ejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection time, and electromechanical systole (QS2), and the increase of QT/QS2. The reactivities of QT/QS2 and PEP defined by mean changes in the P1 period differed in their relationship with cardiovascular responses in the last four minutes. Although the PEP reactivity was associated with the cardiac performance (stroke volume and PEP/LVET), the QT/QS2 reactivity was correlated with the mean blood pressure (MBP). The reactivities of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were defined by the residual difference obtained by subtracting values estimated by baseline RSAs from the mean value of changes during five minutes period. Subjects with high RSA reactivity (vagal withdrawal) showed higher heart rate and MPP than those with low RSA reactivity. The results are discussed with respect to the cardiac loading factors and hemodynamics.
Full processing hypothesis of the spacing effect attributes poor recall of massed-repeated items to a failure to process the repeated items fully. Present study examined the applicability of this hypothesis to sentence free recall task in two experiments. The spacing effect was tested by presenting each sentence with or without intervening ones. The rehearsal procedure was used to enhance the full processing of massed-repeated items. In both Experiments I and II spaced presentation yielded substantially higher level of recall than did massed presentation. However, when the full processing was enhanced by rehearsal procedure in Experiment II, massed presentation yielded the same level of recall as spaced couterparts. These results suggest that the failure of full processing in massed presentation results in the spacing effect of the sentence free recall task.
This study aimed at examining the upward influence tactics employed by subordinates toward their immediate superiors (the leader) in relation to the cohesiveness of a given group, leadership behavior on the part of the leader, and leadership behavior on the part of the group's top leader. The survey involved a sample of 120 nurses. Each nurse was asked to complete a questionnaire, which was prepared on the basis of an earlier preliminary study. The results of the group survey were as follows: (1) A nurse (the subordinate) generally gave play to the tactics of rationality and enthusiam vis-a-vis a democratically inclined head nurse (the immediate superior); (2) coalition behavior was widely practiced in groups that were highly cohesive, while higher authority was employed vis-a-vis a democratically inclined top head nurse (the top leader); (3) the above-mentioned actions employing tactics of influence [(1) to (2)] had, in turn, an effect on the degree of response on the part of the head nurse (the leader) and on the ex post factor relationship between the two parties (nurse and head nurse).
This study examined the relationship between self-disclosure and loneliness. The self-disclosure questionnaire (ESDQ) and the loneliness scale (LSO, consists of two subscales, U-scale and E-scale) were administered to 114 female subjects (junior college students). Results show that self-disclosure scores were negatively related to the U-scale of loneliness (whether or not they believe in mutual sympathy among human beings), but not to the E-scale of loneliness (whether or not they are conscious of individuality of each individual). The results suggest that we have to specify the quality of loneliness in question, when we examine the relationship between self-disclosure and loneliness.
This report describes an experiment in which was measured the onset latency of the saccade to the peripheral target under three conditions of visual cues for the target location. In the central cue condition (the C-condition), the cue was an arrow presented in the central visual field. In the peripheral cue condition (the P-condition), the cue was the form in which the target was presented in the peripheral visual field. In the one-sided cue condition (the O-condition), the cue was the target itself. The saccade latency was measured by means of electro-oculography. The results were; (1) the saccade latencies in the three conditions were significantly different from each other, (2) the latency was longest in the C-condition and shortest in the O-condition, (3) the difference in latency between the P and C-conditions was three times as large as that between O and P-conditions, (4) the latency variance was significantly larger in the C-condition than in the other conditions, (5) the difference in the variances was not significant between the O and P-conditions. The results were interpreted in terms of (a) cognitive processing of visual form and (b) the characteristics of the saccade system.
The effect of an experimental task on autonomic function was investigated by spectral analysis of heart rate variability in 13 male college students. Power spectral density of heart rate variability has been said to contain two significant components: respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as an index of cardiac vagal activity, and Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia (MWSA) as an index of sympathetic activity with vagal modulation. Those two components were examined during a task of mirror drawing on the CRT. In order to eliminate the effect of respiratory rate on RSA, the respiratory rate was controlled at 15 breaths/min. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance of R-R interval (CV-RR) and the fluctuation of plethysmograph (PTG) were calculated simultaneously. Results indicated that, while RSA decreased significantly, MWSA did not change during the task. On the other hand, neither CVRR nor PTG showed any significant differences during the task. These findings indicated that cardiac parasympathetic activity was diminished in the mirror drawing task. The significance of spectral analysis of heart rate variability were discussed.
The effect of interrun interval (IRI) on serial pattern learning was investigated in a runway. One of two serial sequences, a monotonic decreasing sequence (14-7-3-1-0 food pellets) or a nonmonotonic sequence (14-1-3-7-0), was combined factorially with a short (30s) or a long (30 min) IRI. Following 28 acquisition trials, a short (or long) IRI was transferred to the same sequence with a long (or short) IRI. It was found that anticipation of the O-pellet developed more rapidly in the group receiving a monotonic sequence with a 30s IRI than that with a 30 min IRI in acquisition phase. The O-pellet was not anticipated by either of the two nonmonotonic groups. Anticipation was eliminated by the increase in IRI, whereas it was developed by the decrease in IRI in the monotonic sequence. These results suggest that time-related factors such as the decay of the memory of numbers of pellets are needed for Capaldi's memory discrimination theory.
The purpose of this study was to obtain information about both the span and direction of spread of the concept “now” (Japanese ima) used in short sentences such as “I am-a student, ” 583 subjects were presented with 55 sentences, and were required first to rate on a 5-point scale the degree of spread of the concept used in each sentence, and then to express its span and direction in terms of seconds, minutes, ...years, decades, or centuries in both a past- and a future-orientation. The latter data were analysed using the Dual Scaling method which revealed three major solutions: “span”, “direction”, and “interrelation between the previous two”. The former data were analysed using the Factor Analysis method which revealed six factors: “moment”, “conversion”, “limitlessness”, “absorption”, “limitation” and “hopelessness”. Furthermore, second-order analyses were carried out using these six factors, revealing three further factors: “duration”, “change” and “timelessness”. It was concluded that these latter three factors were identical with the three solutions obtained by Dual Scaling.