This experiment is to examine emotional effects induced by acoustic loading on time-estimation and degree of concentration on tasks. Subjects were ten college students, who were asked to produce five second periods (estimation of time), under acoustic loading for 15 minutes. Acoustic stimuli were (1) koto-music, (2) classical music, (3) sound effect, and (4) FM-noise, with different power spectra, expected to induce different emotions in the subjects. Time-estimation and EEG alpha-rhythm were used as parameters of concentration. The main results were as follows. In general, time was underestimated when the subjects' attention was concentrated on the tasks. Acoustic stimuli with 1/f-fluctuation and pleasant emotions induced underestimation of time. Gradient of fluctuation in time-estimation also showed the same effects. With increase in acoustically induced pleasant emotions, alpha-rhythm increased, in parallel with the underestimation of time. These results suggest that emotions induced by the physical characteristics of acoustic stimuli affect mental concentration and eventually affect time-estimation.
The purpose is to clarify what is the primary cause of decline in partial report performance due to cue delay over a given time period. Four subjects participated in the partial report task, and their performances were compared by using two types of stimuli: mixed-character matrix (alphabet, katakana, and kanji) and single-character matrix (one of the three characters), under the tachistoscopic presentation. Both matrices are arranged in three rows by four columns. The result was that the report performance declined almost equally as the cue delay increased under the mixed- and single-character matrix stimuli, even though the location confusion would not influence on the report in the mixed-character condition. Consequently, we may conclude that the decline in partial report performance was caused by the decay of identity information rather than that of location information. Further, the error trends revealed that the earlier researches using single kind of character stimulus (almost exclusively alphabet) overestimated the location error.
The purpose is twofold: first to examine whether an experience that affirms a valued aspect of the self eliminates the negativity of failure and second, to identify what is the most effective condition of self-affirmation. A 2×3 factorial design was employed: Immediately after having failed and prior to rating the beneficialness of failure experience, 72 subjects were allowed to affirm the real-self that they had built up, or the pseudo-self made by the experimenter. The situation of self-affirmation was (1) that subjects affirmed the self in private or (2) that the experimenter also affirmed the subject's self or (3) that the experimenter added information of another one who had the same aspect of self the subjects had affirmed. The self-affirmation effect was most clear-cut, when the real-self was affirmed, and was also affirmed by the experimenter. This effect was especially pronounced for high self-esteem subjects. Joint effects of high self-esteem, clearer real-self, and its publicity elevated level of self-affirmation.
In this article, we tried to reformulate the transformational structure theory of goodness judgment of patterns within the framework of the group theory. We found that reformulation based on the group concepts results in a more general theory, which we call the transformation group theory of goodness judgment of patterns. Main properties of the generalized theory are: 1. Each of the basic cognitive transformations is replaced by a transformation group. 2. They are the dihedral group consisting of mirror-image transformations and a cyclic transformation, the translation group, and the value-reversal transformation group. These groups are derivable independently of the given configurations. 3. The transformation group has the following properties: duality of invariance, nondivergency of transformations produced, and availability of indirect test of invariance. These properties are convenient for cognition of transformational structure of patterns in goodness judgment. 4. The intraconfigurational transformation structure of configurations can be defined by the transformation group so that order among goodness judgments can be predicted, in parallel with the existing transformational structure theory.
This study aims to examine developmental knowledge related to misconception about weight. Subjects from 5th to 7th graders were asked to reason about justifiable phenomena which never occur in science. After that, before judging weight addition tasks, subjects engaged in some knowledge-generating-tasks to examine which knowledge-generating-tasks relate to misconception. The main results were as follows: (1) Most subjects did not realize untruth about justifiable phenomena, (2) the knowledge which related to misconception were muscular-kinetic-feeling and balance-feeling about weight, and (3) awareness to knowledge-generating-tasks changed with age; 5th graders found the relation about every kind of knowledge-task on chance level responding and 6th and 7th graders found the relation with some justificable knowledge. Additionally, some 7th graders were not deluded by any knowledge-generating-tasks. These results suggested misconception about weight might relate to inference from some kinds of everyday-knowledge without realizing the inconsistency with science to them. The developmental change of awareness to knowledge-generating-tasks were discussed in terms of coordination subjects' own theory and their use of knowledge.
The purpose was to examine the effect of instructions about body position on vertical orientation. In order to emphasize the effects, the surface of support was tilted 15 degrees, and subjects were tilted 5 degrees to the counter side of the oblique plane, and asked to adjust a luminous line to a vertical position. Moreover, subjects were instructed that their body was either upright (False Instructed Condition) or not upright (Control Condition). The results indicated that in the Control Condition, the apparent vertical was shifted to the counter side of their body (E-effect), and that in the False Instructed Condition, the apparent vertical was shifted in the opposite direction. These results were discussed in terms of the over-compensation and under-compensation of the cognitive body position. The resuls suggested that the cognitive body position was an important factor in orientation.
To test the peripheral receptor spacing hypothesis (Phillips, Johnson, & Browne, 1983) 24 students partook in the experiment as the subjects, a half of which was males and the rest was females. There were two subject groups: group A was presented 26 upper case Roman alphabet letters and group K was presented 48 Japanese katakana letters. Each of stimulus letters was presented once at each size (3.0, 5.5, and 8.0mm in height) to the right index finger tip. The hit rates of the katakana letter were less than those of the alphabet (P<.01). This result suggests that the peripheral receptor spacing could not be the only determinant in haptic recognition of letters. Possible causes of difference between the hit rates were discussed.
The purpose is to examine the relationship between self-acceptance and personalities developmentally, as for evaluative and affective dimensions. Results: Males and females showed differences in the formation of adolescent self-acceptance. At junior high school level, the accepted personalities are not yet differentiated as for two dimensions in both males and females. In males, they are differentiated at senior high school, and above this level, they showed a linear increase in differentiation. Females showed emotional differentiation at junior high school, and behavioral differentiation at senior high school, and further emotional differentiation at college level. The transition of male is “from a few limited to diverse”, while for females it is “from diverse to a few limited”, As the traits to self-acceptance diversify, the self-acceptance score is high.
The purpose of this study is to provide the normalized list of questions for investigating the feeling of knowing. Normative data were collected on 216 general-information questions from a wide variety of topics, including history, sports, art, literature, and so on. Three hundred and sixty-three undergraduates made a one-word response to each question, or rated their feeling of knowing on a 7-point scale if they could not recall any responses. The results showed that the questions distributed over a wide range on a scale of difficulty. There were few incorrect responses to the questions. Feeling-of-knowing ratings were moderately correlated with the probabilities of correct answers. These findings suggested that the questions provided in this study would serve for the research on the feeling of knowing. It was also suggested that the use of easier questions should generate a strong feeling of knowing.
The concept of negative ideal-self is introduced as a contrast to positive ideal-self. Discrepancies between positive ideal-self and real-self (Dp-score) have been associated with low self-esteem. The present study purported to see whether negative ideal-self may be a standard of self evaluation, and to what extent discrepancies between negative ideal-self and real-self (Dn-score) relate with self-esteem (Rosenberg). The results showed that both Dp-score and Dn-score correlate significantly with self-esteem, but the latter showed higher correlation than the former. It is suggested that self-esteem is more a function of distance that how ‘I’ am not the person which ‘I’ won't to be. These findings were discussed from the importance of an approach to negative aspects of the self.