An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of the prior subconscious processing of angerrelated words and physiological arousal upon anger and aggressive behavior in a frustrated person. Sixteen male and 24 female college students participated in the experiment. First, the subjects performed a cognitive task in which they processed anger-related words or neutral words subconsciously in the high arousal or normal arousal state. In the second ostensibly unrelated task, the subjects were presented with a frustration story and they were asked to rate the intensity of anger which the victim in the story would feel, the victim's responses, and impressions of the frustrator, on several SD-trait scales. It was found that the subjects who processed anger-related words in high arousal state rated the victim as being in the most intense anger and aggressive in behavior and reported the impression of the frustrator as most negative. These findings were interpreted in terms of the network model of emotion.
This study examined effects of intentional modifications on the retrieval of target sentence. In Experiment I, the subjects were allocated to one of three processing task conditions, i.e., they were required to (1) modify presented sentences with a phrase, (2) read aloud, or (3) memorize presented sentences. Following the aquisition phase, the subjects of each condition were allocated to two recall conditions: immediate recall and delayed recall. Recall conditions were in the order of free recall and cued recall. The results indicated that both free recall and cued recall in modifying sentence condition were better than those in reading aloud condition, and that it affected free recall and cued recall differently, when compared with memorizing condition. In Experiment II, the subjects under reading aloud or memorizing condition were presented with the sentences together with a phrase made by subjects in the Experiment I. Comparing modifying sentences condition in Experiment I with two conditions in Experiment II, the results indicated that phrase-generating process could have more beneficial effects on retrieval of target sentence.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the face recognition processes in preschool children. Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects, on face recognition, of familiarity, facial expression and angle of view of faces as well as changes or no changes in facial expression and/or angle of view occurring between the first presentation and the subsequent recognition test. The subjects were 188 five- and six-year old children. In Experiments 1 and 2, half of the faces were highly familiar to the subjects, and the remaining half unfamiliar to them. In Experiment 1, the facial expressions (e. g., smiling or serious) were either changed or unchanged. In Experiment 2, the facial expressions or angles of view (e. g., full-face views or three-quarter views of faces) were either changed or unchanged. The major findings were that the familiar faces and the smiling faces were recognized more correctly than the unfamiliar faces and the serious faces respectively. The results were discussed in terms of ‘identity-specific semantic codes’ and ‘visually-derived semantic codes’.
A method was devised for evaluating odor quality. Subjects were requested to freely describe the images elicited by smelling odors. This test was named the “Free Image-Association Test (FIT)” The test was applied for 20 flavors of various foods, five odors from the standards of T&T olfactometer (Japanese standard olfactory test), butter of yak milk, and incense from Lamaism temples. The words for expressing imagery were analyzed by multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Seven clusters of odors were obtained. The feature of these clusters were quite similar to that of primary odors which have been suggested by previous studies. However, the clustering of odors can not be explained on the basis of the primary-odor theory, but the information processing theory originally proposed by Miller (1956). These results support the usefulness of the Free Image-Association Test for investigating odor perception based on the images associated with odors.
Does rehearsal facilitate association between to-be-remembered items and environmental context (EC) as well as it strengthen the individual traces of items? The answer from the present experiment was affirmative. Subjects, 183 undergraduates, studied a list of 15 familiar nouns by rehearsing aloud with a subsidiary task, and then received a free recall test under one of three conditions: immediate recall (IM), same context (SC), and different context (DC). Subjects in IM were tested immediately after the study session, while the other subjects were teseed 24 hours after the study session. The tests in IM and SC were conducted at the same place with the same experimenter after the same subsidiary task as the study session, whereas the test in DC were conducted at a different place with a different experimenter without the task. The magnitudes in DC of the effect of the number of rehearsals on free recall were about one-half of those in IM and SC, whereas the magnitudes in IM were nearly identical to those in SC. The results indicate that the rehearsal effect is one of EC-dependent phenomena.
We examined the idea that, when the Zöllner figure in one eye and the principal lines in the figure in the other eye were presented, the perceived depth is due to “phenomenal” disparity. The phenomenal disparity is defined as apparent displacement between two illusory “oblique” principal lines in one eye and two “parallel” principal lines in the other. Observes were asked whether depth was seen or not at upper or lower part of the two perceived lines and, if seen, which line was closer. Seventeen observers showed that only 9% of their responses was consistent with the idea, although they reported depths for disprity stimuli. This suggests that the dichoptic presentation of such figures should not be considered as that requires the processing of binocular disparity.
The purpose is to elucidate the effects of occupancies of certain positions in an organization on positive career movements and performance. This study analysed the following variables: the ranks of the teams in the Japan professional baseball official leagues from 1950 to 1989 (40 seasons); the field manager of each baseball teams, who was registered for each season; his position in his player period. The results supported hypothesis (1) that an occupant of a position (infielders and catchers) with a high frequency of interactions in interdependent tasks would be more likely to become a field manager than an occupant of a position (outfielders and pitchers) with a low frequency of interactions. The results also varified hypothesis (2) that field managers who experienced the former position (infielders and catchers) would perform more successfully than the latter position (outfielders and pitchers).
A special version of the House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) technique was developed to differentiate organic psychosis from other disorders. H-T-P data of 126 psychiatric inpatients, including 16 patients with organic psychoses, 50 schizophrenics, 50 borderlines and 10 patients with other psychoses, were evaluated for the presence or absence of 29 possible features of houses, trees and persons. These features included those common to all three objects, as well as those specific to each object. Results for patients with organic psychoses were compared with those of patients with other disorders. The comparison disclosed that seven of the original 29 H-T-P features had diagnostical discrimination among treatment groups, giving higher H-T-P organic scores.
Two studies were conducted to investigate the influences of motor disability of the child on cognitive development. In Study I, elementary school teachers and undergraduate students were requested to rank the school subjects according to how much the teaching of each subject would facilitate scene concepts development of children. The results visually represented by the rank graphs indicated that “physical training” and “arts” which require body actions and movements were judged to be most important for scene concepts development. In Study II, both normal and physically handicapped children were asked to perform free recalls to each of the three stimuli: “my house, ” “my school, ” and “my town.” The results showed the influence of the size of space implied by the stimuli on the number of the items recalled by healthy children but this influence was not the same with physically handicapped children. These results, which indicate the importance of body actions and movements for scene concepts development, were discussed in terms of education for physically handicapped children.